Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
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News

The effectiveness of surgical treatment of various types of strabismus

Prevention and elimination of strabismus with simultaneous restoration of the lost visual functions of eye is an important task for pediatric ophthalmologists. Strabismus ranks second in frequency among pediatric ocular pathologies [5] and occurs in 0,5-3,5% of children [1, 4]. In pediatric eye hospitals, patients with strabismus account for 15 to 35% [2].

Analysis of physical and physiological indicators of wrestlers

Training of sportsmen on the basis of monitoring the level of their fitness leads to higher results of indicators of their physical development. In literary sources, physical and physiological indicators of wrestlers in various sports are estimated [7]. The indices of a holistic approach are considered in the form of interconnection of all types of sports training, morphofunctional peculiarities; some indices of mental and physical activity of sportsmen remain poorly studied [4]. The aim of the work is to study a physical and physiological development of sportsmen of the national wrestling team and compare their indicators with the standards of sports medicine, as well as assess the quality of physical training.

Diagnostics and surgical treatment of duodenal injuries

Injuries to duodenum with blunt trauma is quite rare occurence. Duodenum, due to its anatomical location and relatively small size, is well protected from external damaging factors. Preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal injuries to duodenum is a difficult task, since the signs of lesion build up slowly. Despite numerous observations and a long history of the issue, there are no common tactical approaches in diagnosis and treatment of patients with this type of injury [1-3].

The ways of improving outcomes of cesarean section in pregnancy with high perinatal risk

One of the most urgent issues of modern obstetrics is the increase in the frequency of cesarean section (CS) operations, which improves the outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth in women with obstetric and perinatal pathology [1-5]. In recent years, the frequency of CS has been increasing due to indications from a fetus, that is, to improve perinatal performance [6-9]. The aim of the work is to study the causes of unfavorable perinatal parameters in abdominal delivery of women with full-term pregnancy.

Results of coronary artery bypass surgery for coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

Due to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and concomitant cardiovascular diseases, determining the optimal treatment technique is an urgent and complex problem in modern medicine [6]. The frequency of a combined course of diabetes mellitus with coronary heart disease (CHD) has sharply increased in recent years, which aggravates a course of CHD [8]. The combined course of DM and CHD is characterized by a long history of the disease, elderly age of patients, a large number of old myocardial infarctions. This situation, to a certain extent, limits the possibilities of surgical treatment for surgical revascularization. Currently, a performance of CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) operations and a maximum use of autoarterial conduits are considered the optimal technique that reduce operational risks and improve the clinical results of operations [4, 5]. The aim of the work is to study the results of coronary artery bypass grafting and evaluate a clinical course in patients with CHD with DM of type 2 in multiple lesions of the coronary arteries.

Analyses of the chemical composition of dried cultivated plants of Turkmenistan

Cultivated plants are common in our daily diet, proteins, carbohydrates, fats of these plants serve as a source of energy. Vitamins, minerals, plant fibers, organic acids, pigments which are necessary for normal human life activity and functioning of body systems [5]. In folk medicine, beets, pumpkins, carrots and potatoes are often used to treat and prevent various diseases. The aim of the work is to determine the chemical composition of dried products from cultivated plants of Turkmenistan by volumetric, weight and spectrophotometric methods.

The importance of preventive examinations in the early diagnosis of breast cancer

The fight against malignant neoplasms is a topical issue in scientific and practical oncology, since an increase in the incidence is noted in the world, including Turkmenistan. In Europe, America, Russia, the incidence and mortality from breast cancer (BC) in women ranks first among all malignant neoplasms and the proportion of this disease is 20% [1, 6, 9, 11, 14]. At the end of 2019, BC ranked first among all malignant neoplasms in Turkmenistan and amounted to 17,5%. Among malignant neoplasms in women BC also ranks first and amounted to 25,5%.

The parameters of a blood test in patients with diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) refers to microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in the presence of concomitant diabetic macular edema (DME), regardless of the stage in the absence of treatment, leads to an irreversible decrease in visual acuity [4]. The development of DR is due to the complex interaction of metabolic and hemodynamic factors. Deviations associated with each of these parameters significantly increase viscosity of blood, as a result, the resistance to blood flow increases and the risk of vascular damage, including the retinal vessels increases even more. The activation of platelets, manifested in the enhancement of their aggregation and adhesive capabilities, is the most significant process in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy and retinopathy in particular [4].

Diagnostics features for β-thalassemia

Thalassemia – is a type of hemolytic anemia resulting from the destruction of red blood cells. β-thalassemia, according to the clinical classification, is divided into major, intermedia minor and minimal forms of the disease [1, 3]. β-thalassemia major (Cooley's disease) is characterized by sharply increased HbF content (50% or more of the total hemoglobin level). This disease has the following main clinical signs: progressive anemia, enlargement of liver and spleen, earthy-icteric color of the skin due to increased hemolysis, but without urobilinuria, characteristic changes in the skeleton. β-thalassemia intermedia is not malignant, the symptoms described above appear late and are mild. β-thalassemia minor proceeds in the form of mild hypochromic anemia with characteristic morphological changes in erythrocytes. Minimal β-thalassemia is asymptomatic, in some families with a special genetic examination, it is determined spontaneously.

Endocardial catheter ablation technique for atrial flutter

Atrial flutter (AF) is the most common type of supraventricular tachycardia, which is characterized by rhythmic frequent (200-350) atrial contractions per minute and delayed conduction of impulses in the ventricles due to macro – re-entry mechanism [4, 7]. Pathophysiological basis of AF is a decrease in the stroke volume of blood and a decrease in systemic and coronary blood flow, which contributes to myocardial dysfunction and dilatation of heart chambers, which is the cause of formation of intracardiac thrombi [2, 5]. The aim of the work is to study the effectiveness of treatment by endocardial catheter radiofrequency ablation in patients with paroxysmal atrial flutter.

Comprehensive use of diagnostic techniques of malignant gastric neoplasms

Currently, according to the frequency of morbidity and mortality, malignant neoplasms of stomach (MNS) take 2nd place [1, 4, 6, 7]. The main diagnostic method of MNS is esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which increased the detection of MNS at an early stage by 30%, allows morphological verification of the disease and planning treatment tactics [2, 5, 6]. MNS can be determined using ultrasound of abdominal organs. The early diagnosis of MNS today remains one of the urgent problems of practical oncology. The aim of the work is to analyze the possibilities of early diagnosis of malignant neoplasms of stomach with comprehensive use and develop a diagnostic algorithm.

Spectrophotometric determination of the pigment content in medicinal plants of Turkmenistan

The healing and physiological properties of medicinal plants are due to the presence in them of different groups of active substances, including pigments [1]. They are more often found in the leaves of medicinal plants (Fig. 1).

Diagnostics and treatment of hepatolenticular degeneration

Hepatolenticular degeneration (Wilson-Konovalov disease – WKD) is a hereditary disease, which is based on impaired copper metabolism, leading to its excessive accumulation in the liver, brain, cornea and other organs. According to modern research, WKD occurs much more often than previously thought: about 1:7000-10000 instead of 1:30000 [1]. Timely diagnosis and pathogenetic therapy can radically change the prognosis [5]. In the given clinical case, Wilson-Konovalov's disease with hepatocerebral dystrophy is described.

The use of two-pha­se nut­rient me­dium for strep­tococcus pneu­mo­niae iso­la­tion

Isolation and preservation for an indefinitely long term of microorganisms unstable in the external environment and demanding on nutrient media in bacteriological laboratories are associated with certain difficulties [3, 6, 7]. A representative of the Streptococcus genus S.pneumoniae also belongs to such microorganisms, the isolation of which is hampered not only by the mentioned difficulties, but also by S.pneumoniae's ability to autolysis [3, 6, 7]. Along with reliability of bacteriological diagnostic methods, cost-effectiveness is also important, availability of these methods, in accordance with this, population should be provided with high-quality and affordable health care services. Based on the foregoing, the preparation and use of biphasic nutrient media under laboratory conditions for cultivation and identification of S. pneumoniae is one of the urgent and priority issues of practical bacteriology.

Chro­nic background thy­roid pat­ho­lo­gy as a factor of ma­lig­ni­za­tion of ade­no­mas of thy­roid gland

Over the past decades, an almost twofold increase in the frequency of thyroid cancer has been reported [13]. Analyzing the pathological processes against which thyroid cancer was detected, the researchers note that only in 22,8% of cases this background was absent, and in the remaining 77,1%, the background for development of thyroid cancer were adenomas, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and nodular goiter (NG) [7, 9]. It remains unclear which particular processes can play a decisive role in their malignancy in this case, since previous works had morphologically descriptive character. Of them, which implied a quantitative assessment of the criteria of benign and malignancy, did not include changes in the stroma of the adenomas and gland tissue around them [8]. The aim of the work is to characterize the pathomorphological changes in thyroid gland with autoimmune thyroiditis and nodular goiter from a histomorphometric point of view and evaluate their role in the process of malignization of adenomas.

The ro­le of fa­mi­ly doctors in the fight against breast cancer

Family doctors conduct public health education aimed at the prevention and treatment of diseases, which is very important in relation to the prevention, early detection and treatment of malignant tumors and precancerous diseases, including breast cancer (BC) [2, 6, 12, 15]. The study of the work carried out by family doctors against malignant tumors, including against breast cancer, is an urgent, significant task of modern oncology, and for this, guidelines should be developed to improve this work.

The role of health schools in prevention of coronary heart disease

The importance of CHD problem lies in the prevalence, prolonged and severe clinical course, as well as in the high frequency of mortality and disability [5]. The study of the quality of life of patients with coronary heart disease does not lose its relevance. At present, it can be considered proven that lifestyle change and the fight against risk factors before the onset of clinical signs of a disease and after helps to slow the development of CHD.

Cli­nicofunctio­nal in­dicators of chro­nic catarr­hal gin­givitis in child­ren

Mixed saliva in children is an important biotope of oral cavity, with its help, the connection is preserved with other parts of microbiocenosis and various regulatory mechanisms are implemented by the macroorganism [1-3, 5, 9, 13]. In periodontal inflammation, the biochemical, cytological, microbiological, crystallographic composition and amount of emitted biological fluid is disturbed [6, 7, 14].

Phar­macoe­pi­de­mio­lo­gy of the use of an­ti­hy­per­ten­sive drugs by fa­mi­ly doctors

Arterial hypertension (AH) is a noncommunicable disease that is widespread among the population and a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications, requires longterm checkup, and in many cases, continuous treatment in polyclinics. Therefore, conducting largescale pharmacoepidemiological studies to analyze the features of the use of antihypertensive drugs by family doctors is of great importance for health care system of our country [14, 6]. The aim of the work is to study the peculiarities of prescription of antihypertensive drugs in polyclinics and analyze their compliance with current international recommendations.

Examining the predisposition of young children to anemia

Chary NAZAROV, Hojanepes ANNANEPESOV, Atageldy DJUNELOV, GUL GARRYYEVA,Scientific Research Center, Department of Pharmacology of M.Garryyev SMUT, International Educational and Scientific Center Anemia and micronutrient deficiency directly affect the health of children and mothers. For this reason, incidence rate increases, a lag in physical and neuropsychic development arises, which affects the formation of mental abilities and functional activity [5, 7, 10-12].