"Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy" žurnaly

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
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Epidemiological structure of acute respiratory infections in Turkmenistan

Peculiarities of the epidemic spread of influenza viruses are determined by ability to rapidly mutate and the highest variability of Alphainfluenzavirus and significant – Betainfluenzavirus. Each new shift and drift variant of Alphainfluenzavirus or Betainfluenzavirus is able to overcome the immunity acquired by humans to previously circulating variants of the same virus [1]. This is the reason for the global spread of influenza. The aim of the work is to study the epidemiological structure of acute respiratory infections in Turkmenistan.

Nutrition assessment in primary schoolchildren

Recently there has been a sharp increase in the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight worldwide. The WHO calls overweight in children one of the most serious health problems in the 21st century [5, 6]. It has already been proven that a child who is overweight or obese will have these problems in adulthood [4]. Considering the importance of this issue for public health, the WHO Regional Office for Europe established the European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) in 2007. Turkmenistan, along with more than 40 countries, has joined the fourth round of data studies that allow studying trends in overweight and obesity among children of primary school age over a period of 10 years.

Influence of stereotypes of eating behavior on the risk of cardiovascular diseases

Detection of eating disorders and ways to correct them are of great importance in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Currently, a diet therapy is considered an important component of CVD therapy [4, 6]. The aim of the work is to study the nutritional characteristics of patients with arterial hypertension and detect their relationship with risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

Minimally invasive derotational osteotomy of the lower third of shin bone in children

Torsion deformities of the lower extremities are twisting of the distal parts of the femur and lower leg bones along their axis in relation to the proximal parts. Deformities (twisting) of bones of the lower leg in children are clinically manifested in gait with an internal rotational or external rotational component [2]. A deviation of more than 20 degrees indicates pathological torsion, which usually does not tend to improve and requires surgical correction [1, 6]. Derotational osteotomy is used to eliminate torsion deformities of shin bones [1, 5, 6].

The role of preventive examinations in the early detection of cervical cancer

From the standpoint of the active detection of precancerous diseases (dysplasia) and early cervical cancer, organizational issues, conducting mass gynecological examinations, one of which is the rational organization of the cytological service, designed to ensure maximum efficiency of examinations by conducting cytological studies in each examined woman, are of paramount importance [6, 7] . The aim of the work is to evaluate the results of preventive examinations in Turkmenistan for the purpose of early detection of cervical cancer.

Cognitive disorders in posttraumatic encephalopathy

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is regarded as one of the most important problems in clinical neurology. The consequences of a previous brain injury are both a medical and a social problem [2, 4]. The aim of the study is to establish the clinical features of cognitive impairment in post-traumatic encephalopathy of varying severity.

Management and organizational methods to combat chronic non-communicable diseases

Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) are the significant health, demographic and socioeconomic challenge, both globally and at the country level. The most significant and common NCDs include diseases of cardiovascular system (arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure), diabetes mellitus, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. These conditions account for over half of deaths worldwide. It is necessary to analyze the current situation, identify strengths and weaknesses in the models and principles of healthcare organization aimed at combating NCDs.

The short- and long-term efficacies of endovascular interventions

Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of disability and mortality in the working population. A significant reduction in mortality from coronary heart disease in many countries has been achieved due to the development of a new direction in medicine – interventional cardioangiology [4, 8]. The aim of the work is to study the clinical and functional effectiveness of stenting in patients with coronary heart disease in the short- and long-term after endovascular intervention.

Prevention of complications after surgical treatment of cardioesophageal cancer

Malignant neoplasms of the cardioesophageal zone occupy 12% of all malignant neoplasms. In the world, this disease ranks 3rd after breast and lung cancer. In Turkmenistan and its regions, a decrease in the incidence of cardioesophageal cancer (CEC) has been observed in recent years: over the past 10 years, there has been a decrease by 1,2 times. But, despite this, at present, the diagnosis and treatment of CEC is one of the important problems of practical oncology. The aim of the work is to analyse a surgical treatment of CEC and develop measures to prevent complications that occur in postoperative period.

Comparative analysis of variability of daily profile of arterial pressure depending on the type of left ventricle geometry in pregnant women with arterial hypertension

Hypertensive complications (preeclampsia and eclampsia) are the most severe complications of pregnancy, accompanied by high rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The frequency of arterial hypertension (AH) among pregnant women is, according to the literature, an average of 4-8%, 30% is chronic, i.e. arterial hypertension that existed before pregnancy, and 70% – gestational hypertension [1, 4]. The aim of the work is to develop and implement in healthcare practice a set of measures for prediction, early diagnosis of preeclampsia against the background of arterial hypertension, which will improve the outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth in this contingent of women.

Neuroprotective treatment after acute disorders of cerebral circulation

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cerebrovascular disease is the most common disease in developed countries in the world, which is characterized by an increase in their number in the composition of cardiovascular diseases among people of working age, which depends on the increase in neuropsychic stress. In recent years, the number of strokes among young people and children has increased [12, 14, 15]. Every year, about 14 million people worldwide suffer from an acute stroke, of which about 6 million are fatal. Ischemic stroke accounts for 70-85% of acute cerebral circulatory disorders [1]. Protection of nervous system in the first 4-48 hours after a stroke is especially important. Timely and correctly provided assistance has a positive effect on the outcome of recovery.

Bioorganic composition of stevia leaves

At present, much attention is paid to the study of medicinal plants that can be used in diabetes mellitus, obesity, diseases of gastrointestinal tract [1]. Stevia is a natural, low-calorie sweetener and can be used as a sugar substitute (Fig. 1-3).

Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of vaccines against SARS-COV-2 after revaccination

Since December 2020, various vaccines have been used to combat the global COVID-19 pandemic, which is considered a turning point that changed the situation with the pandemic around the world. In the scientific literature, there are a lot of data on the effectiveness and duration of post-vaccination immunity [1-4]. The aim of the work is to analyze community immunity against SARS-COV-2 depending on the age and type of vaccines.

Influence of nutritional status on the functional state of women's organism during pregnancy

During pregnancy, a female body undergoes significant changes in the functions of all the most important organs and systems, severity of which depends on the course and duration of pregnancy and fetal development [6, 9]. The aim of the work is to identify the influence of nutritional status on the functional state of a female body in early pregnancy.

Peculiarities of changes in the parameters of eyeball and optic nerve in children with myopia

Progression of myopia leads to changes affecting all structures of the fundus, including the optic nerve [1, 2]. The aim of the work is to determine morphostructural changes in the optic nerve head and dependence of these changes on the refractive index and the axial size of the eyeball in children with myopia.

Regional peculiarities of tear excretory function of eyes of the residents of Turkmenistan

It has been proven that the population of Turkmenistan has unique features in the structure of the visual organ and adaptation to environmental conditions. These include narrowing and closure of the angles of anterior chamber, a clear manifestation of pigmentation of the angle zones, thickening of basal part of iris, and the presence of many folds along periphery of iris. There is a high probability of differences in the indicators of the lacrimal function of the population for different regions of the country, characterized by different climatic features.

Evaluation of the long-term results of surgical treatment of heart defects

Heart defects occupy a significant place among cardiovascular diseases, due to which there is an increase in disability and mortality. Complications caused by heart defects: heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias – lead to a serious condition of patients. Therefore, timely detection and treatment of these defects is important. The aim of the work is to evaluate the long-term results of surgical treatment of combined and concomitant heart defects.

Methods of diagnostics and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux

In recent years, according to data obtained from literary sources, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has attracted increasing attention of gastroenterologists in the world due to the highest prevalence among adult population. The term GERD is understood as spontaneous release and ejection of fluid from stomach and duodenum into a lumen of esophagus, which leads to damage to distal part of esophagus.

Influence of thyroid pathology on the course of pregnancy and childbirth

Diseases of thyroid gland (TG) among endocrinopathies occupy a dominant place in terms of prevalence [4, 15]. Moreover, the incidence is increasing in various countries of the world [13, 17]. The leading place among them is occupied by autoimmune diseases, nodular forms, malignant tumors, iodine deficiency diseases [1, 7, 10, 16]. Pregnancy is accompanied by the impact of a complex of factors specific for this condition, which together lead to significant stimulation of thyroid gland of a pregnant woman [10, 14]. Such specific factors are hyperproduction of human chorionic gonadotropin (CG), estrogen and thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG), an increase in renal clearance of iodine and a change in the metabolism of maternal thyroid hormones due to the active functioning of the fetoplacental complex. First factor that acts mainly in the first trimester of pregnancy and leads to transient stimulation of thyroid gland is chorionic gonadotropin (CG), which is similar in structure to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): the hormones have the same α-subunit in structure and specific b-subunits. An increase in CG by 10,000 IU/L leads to an increase in free T₄ by 0,6 mmol/l and a suppression of basal TSH by 0,1 mU/l [15].

Population immunity of the population of Turkmenistan to COVID-19 after "Sputnik-V" vaccination

To assess the effectiveness of ongoing anti-epidemic measures against COVID-19, objective methods are needed to determine anti-coronavirus population immunity using modern methods, which is an important issue in modern epidemiology. The aim of the work is to determine the level and duration of population immunity against COVID-19 after vaccination “GamKowidVak”.