"Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy" žurnaly

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
Adress: Ashgabat c., Garashsyzlyk shayoly, 100, Turkmenbashy centre of free creative work
Telephones: 38-61-55
Email: t-lukmanchylygy-zurnaly@online.tm

News

Peculiarities of changes in the parameters of eyeball and optic nerve in children with myopia

Progression of myopia leads to changes affecting all structures of the fundus, including the optic nerve [1, 2]. The aim of the work is to determine morphostructural changes in the optic nerve head and dependence of these changes on the refractive index and the axial size of the eyeball in children with myopia.

Regional peculiarities of tear excretory function of eyes of the residents of Turkmenistan

It has been proven that the population of Turkmenistan has unique features in the structure of the visual organ and adaptation to environmental conditions. These include narrowing and closure of the angles of anterior chamber, a clear manifestation of pigmentation of the angle zones, thickening of basal part of iris, and the presence of many folds along periphery of iris. There is a high probability of differences in the indicators of the lacrimal function of the population for different regions of the country, characterized by different climatic features.

Evaluation of the long-term results of surgical treatment of heart defects

Heart defects occupy a significant place among cardiovascular diseases, due to which there is an increase in disability and mortality. Complications caused by heart defects: heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias – lead to a serious condition of patients. Therefore, timely detection and treatment of these defects is important. The aim of the work is to evaluate the long-term results of surgical treatment of combined and concomitant heart defects.

Methods of diagnostics and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux

In recent years, according to data obtained from literary sources, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has attracted increasing attention of gastroenterologists in the world due to the highest prevalence among adult population. The term GERD is understood as spontaneous release and ejection of fluid from stomach and duodenum into a lumen of esophagus, which leads to damage to distal part of esophagus.

Influence of thyroid pathology on the course of pregnancy and childbirth

Diseases of thyroid gland (TG) among endocrinopathies occupy a dominant place in terms of prevalence [4, 15]. Moreover, the incidence is increasing in various countries of the world [13, 17]. The leading place among them is occupied by autoimmune diseases, nodular forms, malignant tumors, iodine deficiency diseases [1, 7, 10, 16]. Pregnancy is accompanied by the impact of a complex of factors specific for this condition, which together lead to significant stimulation of thyroid gland of a pregnant woman [10, 14]. Such specific factors are hyperproduction of human chorionic gonadotropin (CG), estrogen and thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG), an increase in renal clearance of iodine and a change in the metabolism of maternal thyroid hormones due to the active functioning of the fetoplacental complex. First factor that acts mainly in the first trimester of pregnancy and leads to transient stimulation of thyroid gland is chorionic gonadotropin (CG), which is similar in structure to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): the hormones have the same α-subunit in structure and specific b-subunits. An increase in CG by 10,000 IU/L leads to an increase in free T₄ by 0,6 mmol/l and a suppression of basal TSH by 0,1 mU/l [15].

Population immunity of the population of Turkmenistan to COVID-19 after "Sputnik-V" vaccination

To assess the effectiveness of ongoing anti-epidemic measures against COVID-19, objective methods are needed to determine anti-coronavirus population immunity using modern methods, which is an important issue in modern epidemiology. The aim of the work is to determine the level and duration of population immunity against COVID-19 after vaccination “GamKowidVak”.

The study of thyroid volume in schoolchildren of Ashgabat city

Thyroid diseases are among the most common endocrine diseases in children and adolescents [4]. Iodine deficiency diseases are among the most common non-communicable human diseases. The high incidence of thyroid pathology in the population is associated with an increased risk of developing and chronicizing somatic pathology in individuals of different age groups. Health of children and adolescents requires attention, since the consequences of negative tendency in the state of younger generation concern the future of the country. Given the relevance of this problem, the study of thyroid status of children and adolescents is an important task.

Analysis of hospital incidence with uveitis

Over the past decade, a steady increase in the incidence of uveitis has been observed in the world, while young people and people of working age make up the bulk of the cases [3, 7]. Uveitis, being one of the most severe inflammatory eye diseases, is characterized by a variety of etiological factors, complexity of pathogenesis, and the frequency of complications. The aim of the work is to analyze the hospital incidence of uveitis of different types.

Use of turkmen silk with biologically active properties in surgical practice

The task of creating and improving existing suture materials is one of the most urgent problems of surgery. In-depth specialization of various areas of surgery which is typical of the modern stage, has led to the need to develop a variety of suture materials with specific properties [5, 6]. The aim of the work is an experimental study of Turkmen silk by studying the physical and mechanical properties and the biological response of various tissues to natural silk in surgical practice.

Results of experimental use of two-phase nutrient media in diagnosis of haemophilus influenza

Haemophili are microorganisms of the family Pasteurellaceae of the genus Haemophilus. Microorganisms of the genus Haemophilus often cause various forms and severity of haemophilus influenza in the elderly, children under the age of five, and in immunocompromised patients. When identifying microorganisms of the genus Haemophilus, there are some difficulties associated with the study of biochemical properties. Proceeding from this task, it is important to carry out bacteriological analyses using reagents and nutrient media that are encountered daily in the practice of medical bacteriology.

The role of labrocytes in morphogenesis of chronic catarrhal gingivitis in children with dentoalveolar anomalies

In the scientific literature of recent years, the role of labrocytes (LC) in the pathogenesis of chronic catarrhal gingivitis (CCG) and other diseases of the oral cavity, including tumors, has been widely discussed [2, 12-14, 16, 18]. In inflammatory periodontal diseases or other pathogenic influences, all types of LC occur, the differences are only quantitative [2, 6, 14, 17]. At the same time, there are no data in the published literature on the number of LCs and their role in the development of CCG in children with dentoalveolar anomalies (DAA).

Morphometric parameters of excavation of optic disk and ganglion cell complex in primary open-angle glaucoma

Glaucoma is one of the most urgent problems in ophthalmology, which is of great medical and social importance due to the high prevalence and severity of complications of the disease, often leading to blindness and disability. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of damage to optic disk and three inner layers of retina that make up the ganglion cell complex (GCC): layers of nerve fibers, ganglion cells and inner plexiform layer, representing axons, cell bodies (somes) and dendrites of the ganglion cells, respectively [6]. The study of these parameters at various stages of glaucoma is relevant.

Effectiveness of vaccination against COVID-19

Vaccination is the most reliable way to protect the population from severe course of COVID -19. By the end of 2021, in the developed countries of the world, a total of at least 77% of the population had already received a full dose of the vaccine. This means that more than 1 billion people around the world are immune to the coronavirus. According to scientific data, antibodies in the blood of people who have had coronavirus can be detected more than a year after infection. Those who had severe COVID-19 had higher antibody titers than those who had only mild symptoms. Based on the above data, the study of antiviral anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is a very urgent problem for effective organization of anti-epidemic measures aimed at combating COVID-19.

Improvement of therapeutic and restorative methods in newborns with necrotizing enterocolitis

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) of newborns is a serious problem, as the development of which depends on the health of a mother, the course of pregnancy, childbirth, and their complications, and the peculiarity of approaches to treatment [5, 8, 11-13]. NEC in newborns occurs in 7-30% of cases [1-3, 14]. According to the clinical course, NEC is divided into 4 stages – fulminant, acute, subacute and recurrent types [1, 4, 15].

Significance of daily monitoring of arterial pressure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Understanding the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and destabilization of arterial hypertension (AH), on the one hand, and on the other hand, a significant prolongation of the life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to the development of modern and highly effective genetically engineered biological drugs and prohypertensive effect of most antirheumatic drugs, primarily NSAIDs and glucocorticoids, further actualize the problem of RA and AH comorbidity [2, 4, 7, 8]. Analysis of the results of diurnal blood pressure profile (DBPP) makes it possible to calculate the average values of BP per day, during daytime and at night, BP variability, assess dynamics of decrease in BP at night compared to daytime, and the level of BP in the morning [1, 3, 5].

Risk factors in patients with cardiac ischemia

The urgency of the problem is determined by the high incidence of a disease, duration of the course and severe clinical manifestations, as well as high disability [2, 3]. Currently, the study of this problem is one of the most important areas of medical science and practice in Turkmenistan. The aim of the work is the study influence of risk factors on the course of the disease in patients with coronary heart disease.

Clinical studies of live dried plague vaccine

Live dried plague vaccine is used to prevent plague and provides specific immunity for one year. The vaccine provides protection against typical and atypical species of Y.pestis bacteria, forms a working immunity against all parietal antigens of the microorganism [3, 8]. The aim of the work is to conduct clinical studies and determine the effectiveness of experimentally created live dried plague vaccine.

Modern methods for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer

In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer (BC) in women in all economically developed countries. Currently, 6,4 million women with BC, who have been living for 5 years or more are registered. According to the latest scientific literature, the incidence of BC has increased by 20%, and mortality by 14% [2, 5, 7, 13]. Treatment of HER2-positive BC is a complex and significant task in practical and scientific oncology.

Introduction of intraoperative neuromonitoring in neurosurgical operations

Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is a modern technology developed specifically to ensure the safety of surgical operations and qualitatively change the level of surgical care. The purpose of the technology is to protect nervous system, which helps to avoid any risk of internal trauma or iatrogenic damage, vital functions are controlled, namely: motor, somatosensory, auditory, visual functions, throughout the entire surgical operation. Despite the improvement of surgical technique, the risks of neurological complications remain [1]. Thus, the frequency of neurological complications, depending on the method of surgical treatment used, ranges from 0,37 to 10% [2]. The development of such complications can be caused not only by direct mechanical damage, stretching or compression of nerve structures, but also by a violation of vascular supply of a spinal cord, which is associated with peculiarities of its blood supply [3, 4]. The use of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) makes it possible to prevent such situations [5].

Characteristics of retinal pigment epithelium in diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious disease of visual organ, which is one of the main causes of blindness and low vision, and refers to late microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The study of pathogenesis at the molecular level, the development of methods for early diagnosis and treatment of DR is one of the urgent problems of ophthalmology. The special role of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and associated with it Bruch's membrane (BM) in maintaining retinal homeostasis, as well as the search for new effective approaches to treatment and prevention of progression of diabetic retinal damage, determines the high relevance of studying these structures in DR. The aim of the work is to study changes in the retinal pigment epithelium according to optical coherence tomography (OCT) data in various types of diabetic retinopathies.