"Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy" žurnaly

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
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News

Effectiveness of vaccination against COVID-19

Vaccination is the most reliable way to protect the population from severe course of COVID -19. By the end of 2021, in the developed countries of the world, a total of at least 77% of the population had already received a full dose of the vaccine. This means that more than 1 billion people around the world are immune to the coronavirus. According to scientific data, antibodies in the blood of people who have had coronavirus can be detected more than a year after infection. Those who had severe COVID-19 had higher antibody titers than those who had only mild symptoms. Based on the above data, the study of antiviral anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is a very urgent problem for effective organization of anti-epidemic measures aimed at combating COVID-19.

Improvement of therapeutic and restorative methods in newborns with necrotizing enterocolitis

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) of newborns is a serious problem, as the development of which depends on the health of a mother, the course of pregnancy, childbirth, and their complications, and the peculiarity of approaches to treatment [5, 8, 11-13]. NEC in newborns occurs in 7-30% of cases [1-3, 14]. According to the clinical course, NEC is divided into 4 stages – fulminant, acute, subacute and recurrent types [1, 4, 15].

Significance of daily monitoring of arterial pressure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Understanding the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and destabilization of arterial hypertension (AH), on the one hand, and on the other hand, a significant prolongation of the life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) due to the development of modern and highly effective genetically engineered biological drugs and prohypertensive effect of most antirheumatic drugs, primarily NSAIDs and glucocorticoids, further actualize the problem of RA and AH comorbidity [2, 4, 7, 8]. Analysis of the results of diurnal blood pressure profile (DBPP) makes it possible to calculate the average values of BP per day, during daytime and at night, BP variability, assess dynamics of decrease in BP at night compared to daytime, and the level of BP in the morning [1, 3, 5].

Risk factors in patients with cardiac ischemia

The urgency of the problem is determined by the high incidence of a disease, duration of the course and severe clinical manifestations, as well as high disability [2, 3]. Currently, the study of this problem is one of the most important areas of medical science and practice in Turkmenistan. The aim of the work is the study influence of risk factors on the course of the disease in patients with coronary heart disease.

Clinical studies of live dried plague vaccine

Live dried plague vaccine is used to prevent plague and provides specific immunity for one year. The vaccine provides protection against typical and atypical species of Y.pestis bacteria, forms a working immunity against all parietal antigens of the microorganism [3, 8]. The aim of the work is to conduct clinical studies and determine the effectiveness of experimentally created live dried plague vaccine.

Modern methods for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer

In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of breast cancer (BC) in women in all economically developed countries. Currently, 6,4 million women with BC, who have been living for 5 years or more are registered. According to the latest scientific literature, the incidence of BC has increased by 20%, and mortality by 14% [2, 5, 7, 13]. Treatment of HER2-positive BC is a complex and significant task in practical and scientific oncology.

Introduction of intraoperative neuromonitoring in neurosurgical operations

Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) is a modern technology developed specifically to ensure the safety of surgical operations and qualitatively change the level of surgical care. The purpose of the technology is to protect nervous system, which helps to avoid any risk of internal trauma or iatrogenic damage, vital functions are controlled, namely: motor, somatosensory, auditory, visual functions, throughout the entire surgical operation. Despite the improvement of surgical technique, the risks of neurological complications remain [1]. Thus, the frequency of neurological complications, depending on the method of surgical treatment used, ranges from 0,37 to 10% [2]. The development of such complications can be caused not only by direct mechanical damage, stretching or compression of nerve structures, but also by a violation of vascular supply of a spinal cord, which is associated with peculiarities of its blood supply [3, 4]. The use of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) makes it possible to prevent such situations [5].

Characteristics of retinal pigment epithelium in diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious disease of visual organ, which is one of the main causes of blindness and low vision, and refers to late microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). The study of pathogenesis at the molecular level, the development of methods for early diagnosis and treatment of DR is one of the urgent problems of ophthalmology. The special role of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and associated with it Bruch's membrane (BM) in maintaining retinal homeostasis, as well as the search for new effective approaches to treatment and prevention of progression of diabetic retinal damage, determines the high relevance of studying these structures in DR. The aim of the work is to study changes in the retinal pigment epithelium according to optical coherence tomography (OCT) data in various types of diabetic retinopathies.

Clinical and functional peculiarities of the course of progressive myopia in children

The steady increase in the frequency of myopia all over the world, the tendency to progression makes this pathology the leading one among the most common visual disorders [3, 6]. The frequent transition of myopia to a complicated form is the cause of vision disability in children and young people [1, 4, 7]. The aim of the work is to study the clinical and functional peculiarities of the course of progressive myopia in children.

Study of the pharmacological properties of St. John's wort plant in anxiety and depressive state

According to scientific evidence, the number of mental disorders is increasing year after year, especially depression and anxiety disorders. Mental illnesses not diagnosed in time become the cause of development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, as well as non-communicable diseases. Currently, drug treatment must take into account the balance between the minimum number of undesirable consequences and the maximum therapeutic results.

The results of diagnostics and treatment of non-epithelial tumors of the stomach

Non-epithelial tumors of the stomach (NTS) are a very rare type of tumor and account for 3-4% of all malignant neoplasms of the stomach, as well as 1% among tumors of gastrointestinal tract [5]. Non-epithelial neoplasms of the stomach are found in 60-70%, of the small intestine in 25-35%, in the colon and rectum in 5%. The clinical manifestations of disease depend on the location and size of tumor. Today, the main method of treatment for NTS is surgical treatment [4, 7, 8].

The role of cytokines in atherosclerotic vascular damage

Currently, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the main cause of illness and death in the world's population. Studies show that coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of death in the adult population and occupies the main place among the causes of CVD [2]. At the same time, the underlying causes of the pathogenesis of the disease, the causes of atherosclerotic (AS) processes have not yet been fully understood. Recently, the understanding of the importance of the inflammatory component in the pathogenesis of the development of changes in the vessels in patients with atherosclerosis has noticeably grown. C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF – Tumor Necrosis Factor) and its soluble receptors types 1 and 2 (sTNFR1, sTNF-R2) are markers of inflammation [5].

Surgical treatment of craniospinal and thalamic neoplasms

Neoplasms passing from brain to spinal cord, and neoplasms of thalamus are rare in practical medicine, and their surgical treatment is very difficult [4, 9]. Here are the clinical cases that we encountered in our practice.

Comparative analysis of immunomodulators affecting the functional activity of blood leukocytes of athletes

Modern sport of the highest achievements sets the athletes the task of overcoming extremely difficult, and in some cases, extreme psychoemotional and physical stress. The analysis of scientific literature shows that regardless of the type of sport, athletes of the highest achievements have significantly reduced functional activity of the immune system, there is a slight immunodeficiency [3, 5-7]. In this regard, the search for means of increasing the functional capabilities of the immune system of the body of athletes is relevant, and not only with the help of synthetic drugs, but also drugs of natural origin. One of the herbal preparations is licorice root, which is well known in the folk medicine of Turkmenistan [2]. The drug of choice for stimulating the immune system can be imunofan, which is currently widely used to correct disorders of the immune system [8].

Molecular-genetic method for sequencing the plague causative agent

Plague is a natural focal bacterial especially dangerous infectious disease. Within the Eurasian region, it is found in Siberia, the Caucasus, along the coast of the Caspian Sea, and 42 autonomous plague foci have been recorded in Central Asia. More than 235 small rodents are carriers of the causative agent of plague in natural conditions, and 120 species of fleas are transmitters. In an epizootologically calm period in enzootic areas, the importance of preventive measures increases [1, 2, 7]. As a result of sequencing, a formal description of the primary structure of a linear macromolecule is obtained in the form of a sequence of monomers in text form [3]. At present, the study of plague has begun at the molecular-genetic level. A typical strain of the plague pathogen is Y.pestis Soemedang (ATCC 19428). The biovars of the eastern CO92 and Central Asian KIM (KIM10) are used as a referent of Y.pestis strains [5, 6].

Prevalence of methobolic syndrome among students

Metabolic syndrome includes a combination of hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance caused by peripheral tissues. This syndrome includes a combination of risk factors for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and their recurrence, characterized by higher rates of mortality and disability (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, sudden death, stroke) [2, 3]. Given the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome among students, raising awareness of metabolic syndrome is critical to reduce the incidence. Thus, in today's educational environment, great attention should be paid to the early detection and correction of malnutrition, which underlines the relevance of this study.

Improvement of treatment methods of hypoxic disorders of cardiovascular system in low-weight infants

The problems of functional disorders of cardiovascular system associated with chronic intrauterine fetal hypoxia in low birth weight infants are the most important tasks of practical health care. Functional disorders of cardiovascular system are diagnosed in 40-70% of newborns who have undergone chronic hypoxia [4]. The aim of the work is to develop effective methods for the treatment of hypoxic disorders of cardiovascular system in low birth weight newborns.

The importance of hydrocolon therapy in the complex treatment of toxicodermatitis

Currently, toxicodermatitis occupies one of the leading places in the general structure of skin diseases, affecting about 6% of the human population [2, 5]. The intestine is a powerful source of endotoxemia and is a determining factor in the development of autosensitization with the subsequent development and progression of toxicodermatitis [3, 4, 6, 7]. One of the most effective methods of detoxification of the body is colon hydrotherapy. This method is widely used in therapy, but there are few data on its use in the treatment of toxicodermatitis.

Clinico-etiological and age features of atopic diseases in children

Allergic diseases in children (AD), like all chronic diseases, change a clinical picture and severity with age. Spectrum of allergens and other factors provoking AD changes with age [1, 3]. The aim of the work is to study the clinical and etiological features of atopic diseases in childhood.

Development of a new medicinal preparation based on dry extract of licorice root

Domestic and foreign publications unanimously confirm the effectiveness of licorice drugs due to the group of main active ingredients  – triterpene glycosides, in particular, glycyrrhizic acid and its derivatives. The growing popularity of drugs from this type of raw material raises the question of the need to introduce new dosage forms into medical practice. Sodium bicarbonate causes an increase in the alkaline reserves of blood, shifts the reaction of bronchial mucus to the alkaline side and makes sputum less viscous, it is used as an expectorant [6].