"Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy" žurnaly

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
Adress: Ashgabat c., Garashsyzlyk shayoly, 100, Turkmenbashy centre of free creative work
Telephones: 38-61-55
Email: t-lukmanchylygy-zurnaly@online.tm


Gold of Margush

Archaeological finds made of precious metals always stir up interest and attract special attention of applied art connoisseurs and researchers, because these artefacts are unique specimens of artistic creativity of jewellers who lived thousands of years ago. Such, for example, are the worldwide and textbook-famous gold jewellery made by Egyptian, Greek or Scythian masters. In the historical part of the exhibition devoted to the kingdom of Margush, the State Museum of the State Cultural Centre of Turkmenistan presents jewellery pieces that vividly illustrate the highest metalworking skills of ancient goldsmiths. The discovery of the legendary Bronze Age kingdom in the delta of the Murghab River in the second half of the 20th century brought many new, amazing things extracted from under the sands, testifying to the flourishing of ceramic and metallurgical production, stone cutting and jeweller’s art in its settlements. Therefore, it became a global sensation and an outstanding achievement of Turkmen science, expanding knowledge about the historical past of Turkmenistan, whose territory is rightfully considered the fifth centre of world civilisation together with Egypt, China, India and Mesopotamia and significantly enriched the museum collection of our country. Today, the golden items from Margush – the “city of kings and gods” that laid in oblivion for 4,000 years, are the adorn

Ancient rock paintings depicting people on skis found in China

«7/24.tm», № 11 (94), 14.03.2022. The unusual rock paintings depicting people on skis have been discovered in Xinjiang Province of China. This archaeological finding is unique for the fact that Northern Europe is considered the birthplace of skiing. However, according to the latest research, the Chinese people could do skiing much earlier than they did in the west.

The scientific account of the turkmen history

Writing perfect works connected with our glorious history, art the roots of which go back to ancient times, and about social life gives a good example to our people. We can see it on the example of the book «Turkmenistan — the Heart of the Great Silk Road» written by our esteemed President. In all the periods of the history our people looked upon the book with a special respect and love. They loved the book as the means of concentrating the spiritual-moral values of the people in it, immortalizing them. In the beginning of this wonderful work highly appreciating the book as the transforming power of the society our Hero Arkadag wrote: «The book is like the candle brought into the dark room. The historical books enlighten the darkness of the past. They satisfy the aspiration, desire of people to reach clarity, to find out the truth. That’s why the human generations admire the books and works with deep content. The book is the fruit of science, flower of culture. If books are published much, both science and culture will also flourish. If science flourishes, our history will flourish, the fates of the whole humanity will flourish, our present, future will turn into a flower garden».

Altyndepe–is archeological heritage of dog upbringing experiences

In our country a lot of discoveries have been made about different periods, revealing valuable information about the historical traces of the Turkmen alabay and origins of national experiences in breeding them. Among them, the archeological heritage of the Altyndepe monument is of particular importance. Altyndepe historical civilization located in 3km east of Mane village in Kaka etrap of Ahal velayat. This civilization created among ancient Mane and Chache rivers, place where farming and animal domestication is prevailed. About this civilization Academic V.M. Masson mentions in his writing “Altyndepe” scientific monography about this civilization’s emergence, life standards and its prosper period. Starting from the second half of the 5th millennium BC near the Mane and Chache rivers farming, cultivation started by people. As result of it the largest settlements of antiquity Altyndepe and Yylgyndepe civilizations emerged. Archeological findings from Altyndepe does not only represent to our countries past, it is also very helpful to learn historical background of Central Asia countries. This is because of the fact that Altyndepe is one of the first places that used bronze metal in history. The introduction and use of bronze metal by the human race have caused a change in the development of world cultures. Therefore, the findings found about the first use of bronze metal in Altyn

Archaeo­lo­gical Discovery Con­firms…

Due to the special concern of Pre­si­dent Gurbanguly Ber­di­mu­ha­me­dov for the revival, stu­dy and pre­servation of ancient tra­di­tions, the Turk­men peop­le received an op­por­tu­ni­ty to stu­dy their his­to­ry mo­re deep­ly and comp­re­hen­sively. Un­doub­ted­ly, na­tio­nal tra­di­tio­nal ga­mes are part of the spi­ri­tual cul­tu­re of the Turk­men peop­le. Ma­ny sports ap­pea­red in ancient ti­mes. They have stood the test of ti­me and survived to this day. This has be­en proven by the work of a num­ber of re­searchers dea­ling with the his­to­ry of sports and by archaeo­lo­gical excavation da­ta from ancient sett­le­ments. Nu­me­rous finds, inclu­ding dice as­hyk, ob­jects in the sha­pe of a sna­ke’s he­ad for the board ga­me pechiz and fi­gu­ri­nes of peop­le and ani­mals, so­me of which not on­ly played the ri­tual and ma­gical ro­le, but al­so served as to­ys for child­ren, we­re found at the mo­nu­ments of the IV-II mil­len­nium BC (Al­tyn-De­pe and Na­maz­ga-De­pe) in Sout­hern Turk­me­nis­tan and du­ring archaeo­lo­gical excavations at the ancient Mas­sa­get mounds. An in­te­res­ting ob­ject was discovered du­ring archaeo­lo­gical excavations at one of the me­dieval mo­nu­ments in the Se­rahs oa­sis – the si­te of ancient sett­le­ment Ge­ok-Te­pe, the ruins of which we­re stu­died last cen­tu­ry by the fa­mous Sout­hern Turk­me­nis­tan In­teg­ra­ted Expe­

Sultanbent, a famous Monument of Ancient Merv

Many traces of man-made fortresses, buildings, different constructions have been preserved on the Turkmen land, as the signs of the hard work of our ancestors. There is much interesting information in historical written sources about some of them. Among these monuments, the most famous is Sultanbent, a special dam built on the banks across the Murgap River. According to written sources left by travellers, Sultanbent has more than a thousand years of history. Speaking about the Murgap River, Al-Maqdisi, the Arab geographer, who lived in the 10th century, wrote that its water was stored in one place until it was full and then the water went towards Merv. The Arab geographer wrote that about ten thousand people worked under the Emir's supervision over the river protecting people from water floods. It can be assumed that the place where the Arab geographer claims that the water overflowing near that dam is an ancient form of the present water structure of Sultanbent. Pointing to the idea that there where the water overflowed was a specially restored dam, Maqdisi himself wrote: «The Murgap River is blocked by very beautiful wooden dams about 6-7 kilometres from Merv. To control the water level, measurements were made on the board with a dotted line in the middle of the river. When the level of the water rises to the sixtieth line, it gave hope that the year would be fruitful. The p

Muhammet Bayram Khan, Turkmen Poet and a famous Statesman

Muhammet Bayram Khan the Turkmen (1501 — 1561) was a skilled poet, a famous statesman, a brave military commander, who embodied the true features of the Turkmen character and after the death of the emperor Babur in 1530 he became the adviser of the ruler Humayun. At that time he also took part in diplomatic missions and in battles as the brave general. Our esteemed President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov notes: «The poetic and philosophical unity of thoughts, multifaceted views on the glorification of humanity, the elevation of the human dignity are the main features of the poet's work. The literary heritage of Bayram Khan, which entered the universal poetic treasury as an ode to humanity, friendship, goodness and beauty, is our pride».

Stamped ceramics of Merv

Large cities that grew up along the Great Silk Road were not only strategic hubs of transit trade, but also well-known centres of production of a wide variety of goods. For a long time, earthenware dishware that is so necessary in every home remained to be among the most used. It is not surprising that ceramic art reached perfection in medieval Turkmenistan. A special group of unglazed ceramics includes vessels with the entire surface ornamented in relief-stamped patterns and made using special matrices (galyb). They are found at the settlements of the 11th-13th centuries. The largest centre of production of such ceramic products was Merv. A vast quarter of ceramists was located in the vicinity of medieval Merv, behind the wall of the site of the ancient settlement of Sultan Gala, in the square of the former suburb, rabad. Thousands of furnaces operated there from the 11th till the early 13th century. Locally manufactured ceramic items – glazed and unglazed – include numerous fragments of high-quality stamped vessels. Ceramic products deformed during firing or damaged during manufacturing were found in mass quantities in the dumps of ceramic scrap; artisans broke them following the custom not to keep their failures. After thorough selection and restoration, the fragments helped recreate a large number of magnificent forms of dishware.

The Man who found treasure in Ancient Times (From the collection of «Life stories»)

I have the book «The popular People of the 20th century» published in Russian in the beginning of 90-s of the 20th century in my hand. While I was looking through the pages of the book the article «The leading scientist of archaeology of Central Asia» attracted my attention. It was very strange and interesting biography. This personality had to overcome a number of difficulties and went through continents.

Play like as-Suli

Intellectual games, including chess, have always been popular in the territory of Turkmenistan. Therefore, it is not surprising that the first unofficial world chess champion, born at the end of the 9th century, came from an ancient Turkmen family. Abu Bekir Ibn Yahya Muhammet as-Suli was the son of one of the sons of Suli Khan, who moved to Baghdad. None of the contemporaries of as-Suli Shadranji could surpass him in chess. Nowadays, wishing to pray the talent of the player, it is said, “He plays like as-Suli.” In the very centre of Ashgabat, there is a shady alley Ylham ("Inspiration"). The eyes of visitors are attracted by sculptures of poets, philosophers, thinkers and scientists of the Middle Ages. One of the monuments embody the image of our compatriot Abu Bekir as-Suli.

Ashgabat, the City twice born

Ashgabat is the crossroad for the life paths of many Turkmen people. Many Turkmen poets and writers created their masterpieces in connection with Ashgabat, because it is the city that unites all the people of Turkmenistan. Many great events took place in this city, the capital of Turkmenistan. Each building or street of the city reminds of historical events like a symbolic monument. The Ashgabat Railway Station is the starting point for many of them. It connects not only all the provinces of the country but it was also the station from which Turkmen people saw off their sons who went to the frontline to defend their Motherland during the Great Patriotic War. Day and night trains loaded with the necessary goods for the front passed along this railway station. In peaceful life, the Ashgabat railway station is always full of people starting on journeys, trips for different purposes. Especially, in summer and autumn there are many young people, girls and boys dressed brightly, reminding the colours of rainbow, come to study to Ashgabat.

Attractive Mystery of Nisa

Like all regions of our Motherland, Southern Turkmenistan and especially the foothill strip of the Kopetdag Mountains can fascinate with the splendour of its enchanting nature. Streams with healing water flowing down from the mountains, orchards saturated with the hot sun, green plains of a blooming oasis, running into the yellow sands of the Karakum Desert, create amazing beauty. And such a landscape is harmoniously complemented by frequent burial mounds and ruins of ancient settlements, testifying to the rich centuries-old history of Turkmenistan. The monuments of the tangible chronicle are so old that their former glory has turned into myths and legends that have outlived their heroes for millennia. One of such monuments is New Nisa, which, together with its “sister” – Old Nisa, often considered as a single local ensemble, is located in the south-west of our white-marble capital city, in Bagir. The definitions “old” and “new” are not quite correct for those settlements, since people lived in New Nisa long before the emergence of Old Nisa in the 3rd century BC. These names that do not correspond to the chronology of events were given to them by the governor of the Transcaspian region, General A.V. Komarov. He encountered only antique ceramics carrying out surface excavations and studying the material, found at the eastern settlement, and only medieval ceramics on the ruins o

From Parthia to Modern Times

The crucial aspects of the state policy include the research and integrated study of the history and culture of the Turkmen people. Large and fruitful activities on the preservation and restoration of historical and cultural monuments have been conducted for many years. Last year, restoration work at one of the amazing heritage sites of our country – Halimberdy (Kerimberdy) Ishan Mosque was completed under the scientific supervision of specialists from the National Directorate for the Protection, Study and Restoration of Historical and Cultural Monuments under the Ministry of Culture of Turkmenistan. The mosque stands in one of the streets of Bagir. It was built at the very beginning of the 20th century, but the 1948 earthquake badly damaged it. Later, the surviving building was listed in the State Register as a monument of history and culture.

The First City of Ancient Farmers

Turkmenistan is famous for a great number of historical and cultural monuments. In this respect, its territory is an “archaeological Klondike”, where researchers have rich material to study the by-gone eras from the Palaeolithic sites up to the late Middle Ages. The earliest settlements of Neolithic farmers and the proto-urban civilisations of the Bronze Age that came to replace them, which reached their heyday at the turn of the 3rd-2nd millennia BC, are of particular interest. The main centres, Altyn-Depe, Namazga-Depe and Ulug-Depe, and their successor, the ancient kingdom of Margush, allow including the lands of our country in a modern belt of cultural development and talking about the fifth centre of civilisation along with Egypt and Mesopotamia, India and China. Altyn-Depe (5th - early 2nd millennium BC) is the most well-studied Neolithic and Bronze Age sites of the three listed above. The remains of the settlement occupy the top of a hill, some sections of which exceed 20 metres in height, and is composed of thick cultural strata. The ruins of the site of ancient settlement are located in the foothill zone of the Kopetdag Mountains in the Ahal velayat, a few kilometres from the Meana village. In its heyday, the settlement occupied an area of 26 hectares and had the well-fortified walls surrounding it, up to 6 metres thick, built of adobe bricks. There were the main 15-me