"Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy" žurnaly

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
Adress: Ashgabat c., Garashsyzlyk shayoly, 100, Turkmenbashy centre of free creative work
Telephones: 38-61-55
Email: t-lukmanchylyk-zurnaly@sanly.tm


An old game

The game of chess is one of the most interesting sports. This game has been invented in ancient times. According to historical sources, our ancestors were deeply interested in the game of chess. In the 7th century, distinguished scientists came from the descendants of Sul, the ruler of Dehistan, located in the southwest of Turkmenistan. One of them is Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Suli, a well-known poet of the 9th century. Moreover, in the 10th century, the writer and historian Abu Bakr Muhammed bin Yahya al-Suli wrote a book about the lives of kings and caliphs and several poems in the form of ghazals and gathered information about scientists, poets and viziers. Besides, being a well-known chess player, Abu Bakr al-Suli created a valuable work ‘Kitab al-Shatranj’ (‘the Book on Chess’). These historical facts demonstrate that the game of chess had great importance in the Middle Ages. It should be noted that chess represents a legacy from our ancestors, enjoys growing popularity in Turkmenistan, and provokes the interest of the younger generations.

Legends about Kyarizes

Efficient water use is an element of the national culture of the Turkmen people. In ancient time, our ancestors knew how to value every drop of water and built the sophisticated irrigation systems to use moisture efficiently. Huge experience has been accumulated, which today, through the efforts of President Serdar Berdimuhamedov, is enriched through widely adopting state-of-the-art technologies and managing this work. The growing wellbeing of the people is associated with the steady economic growth of the country. However, no matter how rich our water resources are, our riches required a rational and caring approach. We should learn the practices of efficient use of water resources from our ancestors. Since ancient times, a complex, but very efficient irrigation system – so called kyarizes has existed in the territory of Turkmenistan. They say that in ancient times the foothill strip of the Kopetdag Mountains was a fabulous place where people lived peacefully, a wolf and a sheep got along side by side, and a cat and a dog played together. A clear, cold river flowed into this region from distant mountains, irrigating fields and gardens, and lush greenery covered everything around. There was plenty of bread and fruit. They say there were neither rich nor poor in those distant times. People knew no need. The water flowing from the mountain peaks gave life even to dry, barr

Ibn Sina — the great Scientist of the East

In the Middle Ages (more precisely, in the VIII-X centuries), very favourable conditions for the development of science were created in Central Asia, because at that time, schools, madrasahs and libraries were established in important cultural-scientific centres such as Nissa, Merv, Amul, Urgench (Khorezm), Bukhara, Samarkand. Our Hero Arkadag Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov wrote in his book «Turkmenistan — the Heart of the Great Silk Road»: «In the middle of the 8th century Central Asia became part of the Arab Caliphate. Arab culture flourished during that time. A large number of books have been translated and are gradually being made available to the general public. There were oral versions of the stories in those books. Accordingly, trade and cultural relations were strengthened». (Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov. «Turkmenistan — the Heart of the Great Silk Road». Ashgabat, TDNG, 2017, p. 62)

The Birth of the Anau Culture

In 2024, it will be 120 years since the first archaeological work was carried out on the territory of Turkmenistan, at the foothills of the Kopetdag Mountains, in the ancient settlement of Anau, under the guidance of the American researcher R. Pumpelly. This solid date echoes the announcement of Anau as the cultural capital of the Turkic world in 2024 by the TURKSOY International Organisation. The discoverer of the Anau culture, Rafael Pumpelly, was an American geologist, the author of 11 major works. He graduated from the Freiberg Mining Academy in Germany with a degree in mining engineering.

A chilled delight that stands the test of time

Ice cream, the delightful frozen dessert loved by people of all ages, has a fascinating history that spans centuries. From its humble origins to its evolution into a worldwide phenomenon, the story of ice cream is as rich and diverse as the flavours it offers. In this article, we will delve into the captivating history of ice cream, tracing its journey through time and exploring its cultural significance.  The origins of ice cream can be traced back to ancient civilizations. It is believed that the Chinese were the first to create a rudimentary form of ice cream around 200 BC. They mixed snow with rice or milk to create a frozen treat. Similar creations were also enjoyed by the Persians, Greeks, and Romans, who flavoured their icy desserts with honey and fruits.

Kunyaurgench Meteorite is 25 Years Old

A rare exhibit of the State Museum of the State Cultural Centre of Turkmenistan is the Kunyaurgench meteorite that is on display in a hermetically sealed case in the Department of Nature and Local History. The case, which was ordered specially in Turkey, prevents oxidation and decay of the exhibit. The meteorite – the unburned parts of the fireball were transferred inside this chamber, without being taken out, to the new building of the Ethnography and Local Lore Museum where it is on display permanently. Now schoolchildren and students come to the Museum and examine curiously the cracked alien block in the “shirt” – a burnt crust with grooves and dents that were formed when the cosmic body entered the dense parts of the atmosphere. The meteorite fell on the territory of Turkmenistan 7 km south of the city of Kunyaurgench at 5:30 pm local time in June 1998. Initially, it was kept at the geology museum of the Türkmengeologiýa State Corporation, later it was decided to exhibit it at the new National Museum of Turkmenistan (now the State Museum) so that a wider circle of scientists, citizens of the country and guests of the capital could see it. When the museum opened, the unique exhibit, registered under the number 486 as “an alien body for our planet”, adorned the collection of the Hall of Nature. The interest in the meteorite has not faded away over many years; such celestial “

Dargan Fortress

Excursions to historical monuments, which the Lebap velayat is especially rich in, have become traditional for students of secondary educational institutions of our region. So recently, we with school students visited the vicinity of the Dargan settlement-fortress, the very name of which, according to the definition of Arab linguists, means: “barrier”, “barrage”, “dam”. Five kilometres from the Dargan fortress, over time, a settlement appeared, and then the modern town of Darganata. It is one of the towns of the Lebap velayat in the north-eastern region of Turkmenistan, bordering with Uzbekistan. Residents of Darganata are proud of the nature conservation objects located there. On the territory of Dargan, there is a mausoleum of the 14th century, called by the locals the tomb of Abu Muslim. According to the preserved inscription on the door of the mausoleum, it was built in 1371-1372 (in 773 according to Muslim chronology).

To Protect for Descendants

Every year on April 18, the world community has been celebrating the International Day for Monuments and Sites for 40 years. The name of the date speaks for itself. Its main goal is to promote the awareness of local communities and individuals throughout the world of the importance of protecting and conserving world cultural and natural heritage. Turkmenistan can rightly be proud of its achievements in this area. The ancient monuments of the Turkmen land – Jeytun, Anau, Kara-depe, Namazga-depe, Altyn-depe, Gonur-depe proto-city, Bezegli-dere, the architectural complexes of Abiverd and Serahs, the monuments located on the banks of the Amudarya River and in the foothill valley of the Kopetdag Mountains and the medieval monuments in Merv, Kunya-Urgench and Dekhistan are the invaluable historical and cultural heritage of our country and the Turkmen people.


America celebrates its very special day – National Oreo Cookie Day on March 6 every year. They love a good cookie. And good cookies stem from the classics.  In fact, one of our absolute favorites is a timeless classic: the Oreo. With crisp chocolate cookies and creamy filling, these little cookies have captured our hearts and our stomachs. The Oreo was first introduced in 1912 and it has been the best-selling cookie in America ever since. We love to dunk them, twist them, and straight up take a bite. Here’’s to the delicious Oreo! The late Sam J. Porcello, a former Nabisco food scientist, is known for his work in terms of the modern Oreo cookie, which has been a creamy favorite snack for decades. This cookie creation is without a doubt one of his most notable achievements in his 34 years at Nabisco. And frankly, we believe that life has been sweeter ever since, since we at National Today just cannot get enough! The Oreo cookie is nearly 108 years old, and is enjoyed by cookie lovers of all ages across the globe.

The secret of ancient Nisa

On the political map of the ancient world, the historical province called Parthia was located in South Turkmenistan. The Great Parthian kingdom was later formed on its basis. This state later consolidated a large geographical area and competed with Ancient Rome. Parthia is known to have had different capital cities at different times. But Nisaya has always been Parthia's «sallanchag» - the city where the state was founded, its spiritual and historical capital. It was one of the most powerful states that shook the ancient world. It was founded in Parthia, one of the satrapies (provinces) of the Seleucid State in 247 BC by Arsak I, the head of the Parn tribe and his brother Tridatus. Parthia lived for almost 500 years and it fell in 224 AD and disappeared from the scene of history. Over the centuries, information about him has faded. According to this, there are different views in science about the foundation of Parthia, the exact dates of its origin and trial, and the origin of the Arsaki dynasty.

Sultan of saints

When we think about the city of Koneurgench, the capital of the state whose reputation once spread to seven continents, we realize that in the past, Koneurgench was a great cultural centre of Oghuz Turkmens, a flourishing place of science, culture, and art. This land is a holy land that gave birth to great thinkers, world-famous scientists, masters, and poets. The great buildings of the past! The mysterious pages of history tell many strange and mysterious stories about those buildings. Those stories about the great buildings of the ancient Koneurgench, the information that looks like fairy tales compared to today's view, correspond to the time when the fiery heels of fierce enemies did not yet tread on this land. In fact, they are cited not only in the memoirs of one or two historians, but in many books.

Turkmen school of painting in the 15th century

As it has been shown in the book «Turkmenistan — the Heart of the Great Silk Road» (Ashgabat, 2017) by our Hero Arkadag, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov the roots of the Turkmen culture go back to the ancient times. The book gives the historical materials and books written about the art and cultural traditions of the Turkmen people. Among them «The Book» of Marco Polo (1254-1324) tells about the ornaments designed by the Turkmen women, their decorations, famous Turkmen carpets, their designs which are striking evidence of the existence of the Turkmen art of painting since the ancient times. The pictures of animals, birds, plants depicted on the Turkmen carpets, charms and decorations show aspirations of their creators, quest for perfection since the ancient times. The Islamic religion founded by Prophet Muhammad in the 7th century militated against the pre-Islamic tradition of making figures and depicting the living beings. Once I asked my grandfather the reason for this, he said: «There is a popular belief that if you draw a picture, then those beings depicted in the picture will ask you on doomsday, in that eternal world, to make them alive and give them souls, but you cannot make them alive, because everything is in the hands of the Almighty Allah». It is evident that such beliefs are closely connected with Muslim traditions.

Bright Symbols of the Turkic World

The decision of the International Organisation of Turkic Culture (TURKSOY) to declare 2024 the Year of the Great Poet and Thinker of the Turkic World – Magtymguly Pyragy and the ancient Turkmen town of Anau the cultural capital of the Turkic world 2024 raises pride in our country and leaves none of citizens of Turkmenistan indifferent. Today, centuries later, the poetic lines of the great son of the Turkmen people, calling for love of the Motherland, unity and brotherhood, remain relevant and echo in every heart. Magtymguly Pyragy!..There is, perhaps, no more famous and more honourable name among the Turkmen people. It is difficult to find another poet in the history of Turkmen literature, whose work has not rolled off the lips for three centuries, whose poetry served as the same exact and accurate expression of the aspirations of every Turkmen.


Demonstrating amazing ingenuity and resourcefulness, the Turkmen people learned to extract life-giving moisture from the bowels of the earth in ancient times. This is illustrated by kyarizes – ancient hydraulic structures, which represent a system of wells connected by underground galleries. Though some of the surviving kyarizes are several centuries old, they continue to serve people by collecting and bringing groundwater to the earth’s surface. These man-made sources of water have served man for thousands of years. Today, in the period of the Revival of the New Era of the Powerful State, specialists of the Bäherdenagyzsuw Directorate conduct maintenance, repair and improvement work at the kyarizes Garaja, Chopan, Hyuntyush, Dov, Garasuv, Han, Janabat, Kone Borme, Bami ata and Shih ata located at the foothills in the Baherden etrap, Ahal velayat. No one will probably ever know when the first kyariz was dug in the ancient Turkmen land, and the point is not in this, but in what an important role these facilities played in the life of our ancestors for thousands of years.

From the History of the Potter’s Wheel

The notion of the potter’s wheel, craftsmen and their products is moving further away from us. There are no pottery workshops in modern cities, few of them can be found in rural areas, and ceramics has received new uses, turning into one of the decorative arts. A real ceramic article is rare; in everyday life it often serves as an interior decoration, an interior design element of office or administrative buildings. Meanwhile, the potter’s wheel that appeared 6,000 years ago has become a factor in progressive changes in the social life of the cultural and historical space, a leap forward for this craft and for humanity. Scientists believe that all the best, progressive and democratic in culture is reflected in ceramics. The reason is in its ethnicity and the traditionalism of this art, which is rooted in history. However, now we will talk about the tool used to make it – the potter’s wheel, one of the greatest inventions of humankind, the longest and most actively functioning technical phenomena. The displacement of hand-made moulding by this pottery tool happened historically quickly, which contributed to the division of labour and the transformation of the craft into a branch of production. In Central Asia, they began to use the potter’s wheel in the late III millennium BC, including the settlements of Southern Turkmenistan – Jeytun, Jebel and Chopan-depe; archa

Gold of Margush

Archaeological finds made of precious metals always stir up interest and attract special attention of applied art connoisseurs and researchers, because these artefacts are unique specimens of artistic creativity of jewellers who lived thousands of years ago. Such, for example, are the worldwide and textbook-famous gold jewellery made by Egyptian, Greek or Scythian masters. In the historical part of the exhibition devoted to the kingdom of Margush, the State Museum of the State Cultural Centre of Turkmenistan presents jewellery pieces that vividly illustrate the highest metalworking skills of ancient goldsmiths. The discovery of the legendary Bronze Age kingdom in the delta of the Murghab River in the second half of the 20th century brought many new, amazing things extracted from under the sands, testifying to the flourishing of ceramic and metallurgical production, stone cutting and jeweller’s art in its settlements. Therefore, it became a global sensation and an outstanding achievement of Turkmen science, expanding knowledge about the historical past of Turkmenistan, whose territory is rightfully considered the fifth centre of world civilisation together with Egypt, China, India and Mesopotamia and significantly enriched the museum collection of our country. Today, the golden items from Margush – the “city of kings and gods” that laid in oblivion for 4,000 years, are the adorn

Ancient rock paintings depicting people on skis found in China

«7/24.tm», № 11 (94), 14.03.2022. The unusual rock paintings depicting people on skis have been discovered in Xinjiang Province of China. This archaeological finding is unique for the fact that Northern Europe is considered the birthplace of skiing. However, according to the latest research, the Chinese people could do skiing much earlier than they did in the west.

The scientific account of the turkmen history

Writing perfect works connected with our glorious history, art the roots of which go back to ancient times, and about social life gives a good example to our people. We can see it on the example of the book «Turkmenistan — the Heart of the Great Silk Road» written by our esteemed President. In all the periods of the history our people looked upon the book with a special respect and love. They loved the book as the means of concentrating the spiritual-moral values of the people in it, immortalizing them. In the beginning of this wonderful work highly appreciating the book as the transforming power of the society our Hero Arkadag wrote: «The book is like the candle brought into the dark room. The historical books enlighten the darkness of the past. They satisfy the aspiration, desire of people to reach clarity, to find out the truth. That’s why the human generations admire the books and works with deep content. The book is the fruit of science, flower of culture. If books are published much, both science and culture will also flourish. If science flourishes, our history will flourish, the fates of the whole humanity will flourish, our present, future will turn into a flower garden».

Altyndepe–is archeological heritage of dog upbringing experiences

In our country a lot of discoveries have been made about different periods, revealing valuable information about the historical traces of the Turkmen alabay and origins of national experiences in breeding them. Among them, the archeological heritage of the Altyndepe monument is of particular importance. Altyndepe historical civilization located in 3km east of Mane village in Kaka etrap of Ahal velayat. This civilization created among ancient Mane and Chache rivers, place where farming and animal domestication is prevailed. About this civilization Academic V.M. Masson mentions in his writing “Altyndepe” scientific monography about this civilization’s emergence, life standards and its prosper period. Starting from the second half of the 5th millennium BC near the Mane and Chache rivers farming, cultivation started by people. As result of it the largest settlements of antiquity Altyndepe and Yylgyndepe civilizations emerged. Archeological findings from Altyndepe does not only represent to our countries past, it is also very helpful to learn historical background of Central Asia countries. This is because of the fact that Altyndepe is one of the first places that used bronze metal in history. The introduction and use of bronze metal by the human race have caused a change in the development of world cultures. Therefore, the findings found about the first use of bronze metal in Altyn

Archaeo­lo­gical Discovery Con­firms…

Due to the special concern of Pre­si­dent Gurbanguly Ber­di­mu­ha­me­dov for the revival, stu­dy and pre­servation of ancient tra­di­tions, the Turk­men peop­le received an op­por­tu­ni­ty to stu­dy their his­to­ry mo­re deep­ly and comp­re­hen­sively. Un­doub­ted­ly, na­tio­nal tra­di­tio­nal ga­mes are part of the spi­ri­tual cul­tu­re of the Turk­men peop­le. Ma­ny sports ap­pea­red in ancient ti­mes. They have stood the test of ti­me and survived to this day. This has be­en proven by the work of a num­ber of re­searchers dea­ling with the his­to­ry of sports and by archaeo­lo­gical excavation da­ta from ancient sett­le­ments. Nu­me­rous finds, inclu­ding dice as­hyk, ob­jects in the sha­pe of a sna­ke’s he­ad for the board ga­me pechiz and fi­gu­ri­nes of peop­le and ani­mals, so­me of which not on­ly played the ri­tual and ma­gical ro­le, but al­so served as to­ys for child­ren, we­re found at the mo­nu­ments of the IV-II mil­len­nium BC (Al­tyn-De­pe and Na­maz­ga-De­pe) in Sout­hern Turk­me­nis­tan and du­ring archaeo­lo­gical excavations at the ancient Mas­sa­get mounds. An in­te­res­ting ob­ject was discovered du­ring archaeo­lo­gical excavations at one of the me­dieval mo­nu­ments in the Se­rahs oa­sis – the si­te of ancient sett­le­ment Ge­ok-Te­pe, the ruins of which we­re stu­died last cen­tu­ry by the fa­mous Sout­hern Turk­me­nis­tan In­teg­ra­ted Expe­