"Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy" žurnaly

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
Adress: Ashgabat c., Garashsyzlyk shayoly, 100, Turkmenbashy centre of free creative work
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Email: t-lukmanchylyk-zurnaly@sanly.tm

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Plants that Love the Wind

Nature is incredibly inventive in its manifestations. In the process of long evolution or historical development, various characteristics appeared in plants as a result of mutations. If they turned out to be useless for the existence of organisms, they gradually disappeared. Those that helped survive were consolidated, strengthened and passed on by inheritance. The characteristics that we currently see in various desert or mountain plants in their external and internal structure are the result of natural selection. They help them vegetate and form fruits and seeds in harsh arid dry conditions, as well as form populations in new areas. Also, for plants in short weather conditions in the Karakum conditions, it is necessary not only to undergo the reproduction process, but also to distribute around the fruits and seeds that form on them. Different types of flora also use environmental factors, for example, wind, with the help of which plants are pollinated and distribute fruits and seeds. Many similar plants grow in the deserts of Turkmenistan: sedge, astragalus, calligonum, sand acacia, white and black saxaul, tamarix and others. In the process of evolution, all of them have developed special outgrowths-devices on their fruits that improve their flying properties.

Even Mountains Worship Holy Places

In the northeast of the city of Aktau, in the Mangyshlak region, there is a mountain called Shirkala, which in Turkmen means “Lion's fortress” or “Lion Mountain”. There are also other names: the sphinx mountain and the white yurt of gods. If you look at it from one side, it really resembles a huge white yurt, but on the other side, it looks like a sleeping lion with its huge head resting on its paws. Some argue that it resembles a huge bowl, which was turned over by a satiated traveller. Residents of the region consider Shirkala a shrine of Mangyshlak. The mountain with a height of more than 300 metres is capricious and does not tolerate curious onlookers. Despite its relatively low height for mountaineering, Shirkala is a very harsh and unpredictable mountain. Monolithic walls enclosing the summit from almost all sides make climbing to this mountain very difficult, some routes are accessible to professional athletes only. Shirkala has an attractive atmosphere, it attracts travellers, climbers, writers and painters.

Gems – Luxury of Turkmen Nature

Gems and ornamental minerals – jasper, amethyst, quartz geodes, nodules of pink celestite from Tuarkyr, agate from the Big Balhan Mountains banded marble onyx, which combines translucent and opaque bands, from the caves of Koytendag and Kaylyu, zebra-shaped dolomite from the Kopetdag Mountains, travertine from Gaurdak and chalcedony from Tuarkyr can be found in Turkmenistan. Many beautiful and rare samples “settled down” in the geological collections of training and research centres, nature museums of Turkmenistan and the CIS countries and private collections around the world.

Guest from the Kazakh Steppes

Carrying out a planned walk-through and pre-winter scientific field activities and at the same time taking a stock of biodiversity, a group of nature conservation inspectors noticed a steppe eagle sitting on a two-metre elevation. Two steppe kestrels circled above him, this is how they usually protect their hunting territory. Suddenly the predator tilted and fell on its back, it became clear that something was wrong with him. Environmentalists began to approach the bird with caution, but there was no reaction on its part. Judging by its exhausted state, it became clear that the eagle had lost all strength during the flight, it was weak and hungry, so it was not difficult to catch it. We delivered the bird to the central estate of the reserve, a veterinarian examined and treated it, and the staff fed the feathered predator and at the same time recorded its measurements. It was an adult: the wing length was 51 cm, the body was 63 cm long, the tail was 24 cm, and the beak was 4 cm. The steppe eagle belongs to the order Falconiformes and the family of Accipitridae; he is a rare species listed in the Red Data Book of Turkmenistan. On the territory of the Badhyz State Reserve, it is registered as a wintering bird, which arrives in late September-early October and is found mainly in the steppe part of the Reserve’s territory. These birds fly back in the second half of March; th

New Flora of Turkmenistan

Scientific methods for studying flora and vegetation began to be applied in the first half of the 19th century. By the end of the century before last, hundreds of famous scientists and naturalists from Russia and Europe visited Turkmenistan in order to search and study of outlandish desert plants and mountain xerophytes. It was during this period that hundreds of thousands of herbarium samples were collected, which served as type material for describing new plant species in the future. Seed and planting material was obtained and was successfully acclimatised, it still adorns the most famous botanical gardens in the world. A lot of research in the field of botany was carried out in the last century, when a number of research institutions were established, and in the current one - in the modern period of independence. Among the achievements is the scientifically confirmed growth within the country of 3,100 species of higher plants (these are ferns, horsetails, gymnosperms or conifers, and flowering plants). Studying the statistics of new species finds over time, it may seem that work in this area is less active than in the past: there is less and less unknown and unexplored. Nevertheless, over the past five years, three species of higher plants have been discovered in Turkmenistan, which I would like to talk about. The history of the discovery of the Calligonum inerme (unarmed ka

Gardens are the beauty of nature

The Turkmen people cherish the noble principles, and great work is underway in our glorious epoch. The noble principles include planting trees and contributing to the beauty of nature. The harmony of the large-scale work conducted in the country under the wise leadership of the President of Turkmenistan Serdar Berdimuhamedov indicates the effectiveness of the measures in the revival of the new epoch of the powerful state. Protecting and beautifying the nature are among these measures in our country. That is why the tree-planting campaigns are held on a regular basis, and our people take an active part in this noble work. The tree-planting campaign was organized on November 4, and our compatriots engaged in it with great enthusiasm.

A WONDERFUL PLANT OF TURKMEN DESERT

In the era of the Revival of the new epoch of the powerful state, great attention is paid to protecting and preserving natural resources and nature of the Motherland for future generations. The Karakum Desert that covers a significant part of the total area of our country is a treasure of our country. The Karakum Desert has a very rich flora and fauna. This Turkmen desert is distinguished by its natural wonders and incredible beauty. Thousands of plant species are found in Turkmenistan, and more than 700 of them grow in the desert. In this regard, we should highlight the publication of Volume XV of the Arkadag’s scientific encyclopaedia “Medicinal Plants of Turkmenistan” that describes the national traditions of healing and the medicinal value of the rich flora of the Turkmen land. You clearly see the inextricable connection between human health and nature in the scientific works by our scientist Arkadag. One of the plants widely used in folk medicine is saxaul.

A WONDERFUL PLANT OF TURKMEN DESERT

In the era of the Revival of the new epoch of the powerful state, great attention is paid to protecting and preserving natural resources and nature of the Motherland for future generations. The Karakum Desert that covers a significant part of the total area of our country is a treasure of our country. The Karakum Desert has a very rich flora and fauna. This Turkmen desert is distinguished by its natural wonders and incredible beauty. Thousands of plant species are found in Turkmenistan, and more than 700 of them grow in the desert. In this regard, we should highlight the publication of Volume XV of the Arkadag’s scientific encyclopaedia «Medicinal Plants of Turkmenistan» that describes the national traditions of healing and the medicinal value of the rich flora of the Turkmenland. You clearly see the in extricable connection between human health and nature in the scientific works by our scientist Arkadag. One of the plants widely used in folk medicine is saxaul. Saxaul is the main plant of the Karakum Desert. There are two types of saxaul, which is a solid wood, white and black. They are very similar but can be distinguished at a distance. The branches of white saxaul are lighter and smaller, while those of black saxaul are thinner and larger. Saxaul forests, particularly white saxaul, are common in the sandy areas of the desert. The height of this plant is from 23 to 5 metres,

New Flora of Turkmenistan

Scientific methods for studying flora and vegetation began to be applied in the first half of the 19th century. By the end of the century before last, hundreds of famous scientists and naturalists from Russia and Europe visited Turkmenistan in order to search and study of outlandish desert plants and mountain xerophytes. It was during this period that hundreds of thousands of herbarium samples were collected, which served as type material for describing new plant species in the future. Seed and planting material was obtained and was successfully acclimatised, it still adorns the most famous botanical gardens in the world. A lot of research in the field of botany was carried out in the last century, when a number of research institutions were established, and in the current one - in the modern period of independence. Among the achievements is the scientifically confirmed growth within the country of 3,100 species of higher plants (these are ferns, horsetails, gymnosperms or conifers, and flowering plants). Studying the statistics of new species finds over time, it may seem that work in this area is less active than in the past: there is less and less unknown and unexplored. Nevertheless, over the past five years, three species of higher plants have been discovered in Turkmenistan, which I would like to talk about. The history of the discovery of the Calligonum inerme (unarmed k

Blind Loach

There is probably no one who did not participate in a game blind man’s buff as a child, in which one is blindfolded and must catch one of the children around him. Everyone has experienced the feeling of insecurity when bumping into the objects. We are used to seeing everything that surrounds us. In this regard, nature has given sight to almost all living beings. The loss of sight makes life incomplete. But there are always exceptions to the general rule. A bat can navigate with confidence in pitch darkness. No matter how fast it flies, it always dodges and bypasses obstacles. This ability of the bat remained a mystery for a long time. When science revealed the principles of work the bat’s organ of vision, an important step was taken to develop technology: a radar that sees flying objects thousands of kilometres away was invented.

A Feathered Guest in Daray-Dere

Biologists of the research department of the Koytendag State Nature Reserve of the Ministry of Environment Protection of Turkmenistan are considering visiting the picturesque Daray-dere gorge with a new bird species that has not been recorded in those places before. A surprising meeting took place during one of the recent trips to monitor the seasonal state of the flora and to record the fauna species, which, as a rule, are joined by colleagues from other state reserves and biologists from the Nature Conservation Society of Turkmenistan. An ecologist of the Balkan velayat branch of the Society Hojamyrat Hojamyradov saw the unfamiliar bird while he was on the trip with a group of ecologists. To understand what kind of bird it was he had to take a picture of the fidgety creature that rapidly changed its “position” catching nimble flying food and hiding in dense foliage. Hojamyrat aga and I lingered, trying to take a tolerable picture of the quirky bird, and then for a long time we were paging the ornithological guide to all bird species that inhabit the territory of Turkmenistan.

In the World of Science

The Ylym Publishing House has released a scientific and practical manual Digital System for the Saline Soil Development in Turkmenistan compiled by the team of the scientists from the biodiversity laboratory of the National Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna of the Ministry of Environment Protection – Candidate of Agriculture Bayrammurad Durdiyev, Candidate of Technology Kakabay Annaniyazov and Candidate of Biology Olga Arzyamova. The manual is intended for agricultural specialists, lecturers of agricultural higher educational establishments and entrepreneurs and is based on the findings of a study conducted in accordance with the Programme of the Socioeconomic Development of Turkmenistan for 2019–2025, the National Programme on the Aral Sea Basin for 2021–2025 and the Conception of Digital Economy Development for 2019–2025. Scientists offer an efficient method of aerospace sensing of Earth and the use geographic information systems – GIS technologies, a method of digital mapping of soil salinity, along with a salinity chemism classification. Phytomelioration remains one of the effective ecological methods; a hyperspectral data analysis is used to ensure success of this method. * * *

ROSE

What do you know about rose flowers? Where do you see them? Do you see them being given as a gift? Do you cultivate them? Roses have many benefits that people should know about.

The Legal Framework to Environment Protection

One of the main directions of the state policy of Turkmenistan is environment protection and the ensuring of environmental safety. In this regard, concrete steps are being taken both at the national and regional levels. Turkmenistan is actively building up productive cooperation with all interested partners to address such important issues as improving the environment of the Aral Sea region, preserving the Caspian Sea and adapting to climate change. When implementing projects in this area, our country seeks to use the existing solid experience and creative potential for the common good. As part of the practical steps taken to implement the environmental strategy, special attention is paid to the creation of a modern legal framework in this area. Under the leadership of the esteemed President, in the context of large-scale legal reforms, a scientific and systematic approach to the legislative framework for environment protection has been ensured.

Mountain “Glass”

The Great Balkhan mountain range, stretching for 80 km in length and 20 km in width, even with all its “compactness” in comparison with other mountain systems of the country, looks massive for the flat steppe surrounding it from all sides. The mountains are high enough (1,880 m above sea level), and when it is already warm at the foot by April, there may still be snow cover at the top. Their steep slopes with a large number of long and short gorges, intricate in their trajectory, with juniper thickets, up to the flat plateau of the upper tier, are difficult to pass and little explored. The mountains are made up of limestone and sandstone massifs, which are covered with grey soils, which explains the abundant vegetation cover. Limestone, depending on impurities, has a different density and, in interaction with precipitation, melt and mudflows, forms canyons of fanciful shape, steep chinks and intricate terrain. Karst sinkholes, niches and recesses in the calcareous mantle of rocky slopes, which, with a certain projection of chiaroscuro and the presence of a share of imagination, create a relief performance: scenery paintings of a pandemonium of various fairy-tale heroes and monsters. It is difficult to take your eyes off this phantasmagoria. The presence of limestone is a sign that the Balkhan Mountains are a product of marine deposits of the Palaeozoic era that underwent mount

An Old-Timer among Trees

People say about a wise, generous and kind person, “Shady like a plane tree”, drawing an analogy with the tree species of the same name. Another name, Chinar, is a popular female name in the countries of the East. On the territory of Turkmenistan, Oriental Plane – one of the 10 species found in the countries of Central Asia – grows. The tree grows along the banks of mountain rivers and streams and is part of the mixed forests of low mountains and gorges. The plane tree can be several thousand years old, because once planted a thin stem grows into a tree giant in a few centuries. The time of planting is already forgotten long ago and no one remembers the name of the planter, but the tree will give shade and coolness to people for many years to come. Out of respect for the ability of the plant to stand for centuries, people protect centuries-old plane tree groves, and individual old-timers who have reached impressive sizes are revered as sacred, they are given names associated with ancient parables or legends.

EMBRACING THE JOY OF SUMMER

EXPLORING ACTIVITIES AND CREATING MEMORIES Summer vacations present an ideal opportunity to explore new places and immerse ourselves in different cultures. Traveling allows us to broaden our perspectives, learn about diverse traditions, and create lasting memories.

Transboundary Dialogue on Climate

The participants of the 4th meeting of the Regional Working Group on the development of a Regional Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change in Central Asia under the Green Central Asia initiative finalised the text of the Strategy, taking into account all the comments and proposals received from the Central Asia states. The Green Central Asia Initiative has been implemented by the German Society for International Cooperation since 2020 and is part of the activities of the Federal Republic of Germany on climate change and security within the framework of the UN and the EU Strategy on Central Asia. The Green Central Asia Initiative aims to develop a political dialogue and consequently create better access to information and data in order to enable countries to assess the impact of climate change more accurately and to develop cooperative preventive measures. The working group members from each Central Asian country attended the meeting in a hybrid format, which took place on July 4-5. These are representatives of the foreign ministries of the Central Asian states, industry ministries, government agencies/committees, the International Fund for Saving the Aral Sea and the Interstate Commission for Sustainable Development. The draft Strategy agreed at this stage will be submitted to the countries for final approval and, as planned, the countries will present it at the 28th Conferen

Resin from Mountain Caves

This natural resinous mixture of organic and inorganic substances can be found in rock crevices, where it occurs and accumulates in the form of films, “plugs” and outgrowths mixed with sand and pebbles. It is called mumijo; it is the most ancient medicament of natural origin, known in oriental medicine for more than 3,000 years. Its origin has long remained a mystery, most naturalists and now cannot come to a common “denominator”, believing that it is a product of the vital activity of animals and plants. This natural medicinal material is used in animal husbandry as an immunomodulator that help prevent and treat various diseases. Let’s turn to ancient sources. Aristotle, who lived in the 4th century BC, described the medicinal properties of mumijo and how to test its quality. A Central Asian encyclopaedist Al-Biruni (973-1048) writes, “Mountain resin in some respects is identical to amber and aromatic resins. It is a gum that flows from a certain rock in the mountains, and no one knows where its source is. I was in one village and asked about it, and they told me that they go up to hard-to-reach places, look for it and there they find it stuck to stones in the same way as gum grows onto a tree.” A renowned healer Abu Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037) notes, “Mumijo has the same strength and the same nature as zift (asphalt) and bitumen mixed together, but it is more perfect a

On the Garabogazgol Expanses

The Caspian region is an endless expanse of sandy areas, saline to varying degrees, the eolian (“Eol” from ancient Greek is the god of sands) material of which was brought by the wind from the side of the Chilmammetkum sands, plateaus, or kyrs with gypsum outcrops, table-like uplands, depressions with saline lands and rocky geological formations. On top of the continental strata, there is a layer of soil of various thickness, the mechanical structure of which determines the composition and condition of the vegetation. The territories directly adjacent to the Caspian Sea and the Garabogazgol Bay differ in their original, unique landscapes. Their look cannot be confused with other parts of the Karakum Desert – the endlessly stretching plains are unique and unusual for the eye, it is difficult to capture so much space and the high sky! When you visit those places with scientific assignments, doing your usual geobotanical work, you never get tired of admiring the landscapes, in which you can always find something new for yourself, some key element of the area. This little-explored region can be attractive to the tourism sector, its harsh beauty will be appreciated by those who are not afraid to get away from the noise of paved roads. And although there are not so many historical sites, there are plenty of monuments that nature has created, the incredible beauty of which is br