"Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy" žurnaly

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
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News

Clinical and functional peculiarities of the course of progressive myopia in children

The steady increase in the frequency of myopia all over the world, the tendency to progression makes this pathology the leading one among the most common visual disorders [3, 6]. The frequent transition of myopia to a complicated form is the cause of vision disability in children and young people [1, 4, 7]. The aim of the work is to study the clinical and functional peculiarities of the course of progressive myopia in children.

Study of the pharmacological properties of St. John's wort plant in anxiety and depressive state

According to scientific evidence, the number of mental disorders is increasing year after year, especially depression and anxiety disorders. Mental illnesses not diagnosed in time become the cause of development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, as well as non-communicable diseases. Currently, drug treatment must take into account the balance between the minimum number of undesirable consequences and the maximum therapeutic results.

The results of diagnostics and treatment of non-epithelial tumors of the stomach

Non-epithelial tumors of the stomach (NTS) are a very rare type of tumor and account for 3-4% of all malignant neoplasms of the stomach, as well as 1% among tumors of gastrointestinal tract [5]. Non-epithelial neoplasms of the stomach are found in 60-70%, of the small intestine in 25-35%, in the colon and rectum in 5%. The clinical manifestations of disease depend on the location and size of tumor. Today, the main method of treatment for NTS is surgical treatment [4, 7, 8].

The role of cytokines in atherosclerotic vascular damage

Currently, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the main cause of illness and death in the world's population. Studies show that coronary heart disease (CHD) is the main cause of death in the adult population and occupies the main place among the causes of CVD [2]. At the same time, the underlying causes of the pathogenesis of the disease, the causes of atherosclerotic (AS) processes have not yet been fully understood. Recently, the understanding of the importance of the inflammatory component in the pathogenesis of the development of changes in the vessels in patients with atherosclerosis has noticeably grown. C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF – Tumor Necrosis Factor) and its soluble receptors types 1 and 2 (sTNFR1, sTNF-R2) are markers of inflammation [5].

Surgical treatment of craniospinal and thalamic neoplasms

Neoplasms passing from brain to spinal cord, and neoplasms of thalamus are rare in practical medicine, and their surgical treatment is very difficult [4, 9]. Here are the clinical cases that we encountered in our practice.

Comparative analysis of immunomodulators affecting the functional activity of blood leukocytes of athletes

Modern sport of the highest achievements sets the athletes the task of overcoming extremely difficult, and in some cases, extreme psychoemotional and physical stress. The analysis of scientific literature shows that regardless of the type of sport, athletes of the highest achievements have significantly reduced functional activity of the immune system, there is a slight immunodeficiency [3, 5-7]. In this regard, the search for means of increasing the functional capabilities of the immune system of the body of athletes is relevant, and not only with the help of synthetic drugs, but also drugs of natural origin. One of the herbal preparations is licorice root, which is well known in the folk medicine of Turkmenistan [2]. The drug of choice for stimulating the immune system can be imunofan, which is currently widely used to correct disorders of the immune system [8].

Molecular-genetic method for sequencing the plague causative agent

Plague is a natural focal bacterial especially dangerous infectious disease. Within the Eurasian region, it is found in Siberia, the Caucasus, along the coast of the Caspian Sea, and 42 autonomous plague foci have been recorded in Central Asia. More than 235 small rodents are carriers of the causative agent of plague in natural conditions, and 120 species of fleas are transmitters. In an epizootologically calm period in enzootic areas, the importance of preventive measures increases [1, 2, 7]. As a result of sequencing, a formal description of the primary structure of a linear macromolecule is obtained in the form of a sequence of monomers in text form [3]. At present, the study of plague has begun at the molecular-genetic level. A typical strain of the plague pathogen is Y.pestis Soemedang (ATCC 19428). The biovars of the eastern CO92 and Central Asian KIM (KIM10) are used as a referent of Y.pestis strains [5, 6].

Prevalence of methobolic syndrome among students

Metabolic syndrome includes a combination of hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance caused by peripheral tissues. This syndrome includes a combination of risk factors for atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and their recurrence, characterized by higher rates of mortality and disability (coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, sudden death, stroke) [2, 3]. Given the rising prevalence of metabolic syndrome among students, raising awareness of metabolic syndrome is critical to reduce the incidence. Thus, in today's educational environment, great attention should be paid to the early detection and correction of malnutrition, which underlines the relevance of this study.

Improvement of treatment methods of hypoxic disorders of cardiovascular system in low-weight infants

The problems of functional disorders of cardiovascular system associated with chronic intrauterine fetal hypoxia in low birth weight infants are the most important tasks of practical health care. Functional disorders of cardiovascular system are diagnosed in 40-70% of newborns who have undergone chronic hypoxia [4]. The aim of the work is to develop effective methods for the treatment of hypoxic disorders of cardiovascular system in low birth weight newborns.

The importance of hydrocolon therapy in the complex treatment of toxicodermatitis

Currently, toxicodermatitis occupies one of the leading places in the general structure of skin diseases, affecting about 6% of the human population [2, 5]. The intestine is a powerful source of endotoxemia and is a determining factor in the development of autosensitization with the subsequent development and progression of toxicodermatitis [3, 4, 6, 7]. One of the most effective methods of detoxification of the body is colon hydrotherapy. This method is widely used in therapy, but there are few data on its use in the treatment of toxicodermatitis.

Clinico-etiological and age features of atopic diseases in children

Allergic diseases in children (AD), like all chronic diseases, change a clinical picture and severity with age. Spectrum of allergens and other factors provoking AD changes with age [1, 3]. The aim of the work is to study the clinical and etiological features of atopic diseases in childhood.

Development of a new medicinal preparation based on dry extract of licorice root

Domestic and foreign publications unanimously confirm the effectiveness of licorice drugs due to the group of main active ingredients  – triterpene glycosides, in particular, glycyrrhizic acid and its derivatives. The growing popularity of drugs from this type of raw material raises the question of the need to introduce new dosage forms into medical practice. Sodium bicarbonate causes an increase in the alkaline reserves of blood, shifts the reaction of bronchial mucus to the alkaline side and makes sputum less viscous, it is used as an expectorant [6].

Organizational aspects of COVID-19 prevention

The issues of the country's readiness for the new global challenges of our time in the form of various infectious pathologies are in the center of attention of the President of Turkmenistan. Considering the growing spread of COVID-19 infection around the world and on the basis of anti-epidemic monitoring on January 2, 2020, anti-epidemic measures were introduced in the country to protect the country's territory from the importation of coronavirus infection.

Determination of trans fat and salt content in food products

The health status of the population is one of the main indicators of the country's well-being. For health, artificial trans isomers formed during the industrial processing of liquid and animal fats are more dangerous [5-6]. In most countries, trans fats are still widely used in the preparation of confectionery, fast food, snacks and processed foods. Trans fats are not nutrients and must be replaced with unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Fortification of wheat flour with iron on flour mills of Turkmenistan

Fortification of staple foods such as wheat flour, salt and oil makes these foods more nutritious and does not require changing eating habits. The most typical components of a premix to be added to flour are iron salts and folic acid [5].

Humoral immunity state of the population against COVID-19 infection

Despite the economic downturn in the developed countries of the world during COVID-19 pandemic, owing to the "Open Door" policy announced by the esteemed President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, international relations in our country are developing rapidly. Based on decisions taken by the Emergency Commission of Turkmenistan for combating the spread of disease in order to protect the borders of Turkmenistan from the pandemic infection COVID-19 and to prevent the spread of this infection across the country, the epidemiological well-being is under strict control.

Results of treatment of HER 2-positive breast cancer

The incidence of malignant mammary tumors (MMT) is one of the first among oncological diseases in the world and in Turkmenistan. According to the WHO data, 1 million 700 thousand women fall ill annually in the world [1]. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and other molecular genetic studies are of great importance in determining the biological characteristics of MMT [2-4].

Comorbidities of coronary heart disease in Turkmenistan

According to the WHO, in 2018, 17,9 million people die annually from cardiovascular disease (CVD), and this is 31% of all deaths in the world [8]. Most of the patients seeking medical help for CVD, and in particular coronary heart disease (CHD), have several diseases of the internal organs. Comorbidity in CHD in Turkmenistan has not yet been studied enough. In this regard, the study of factors that can affect the course of CHD continues to be an important task of fundamental and clinical cardiology. The aim of the work is to study the presence of comorbid conditions and the structure of comorbidity in patients with stable angina pectoris in Turkmenistan.

Optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of age-related macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision loss. This pathology is bilateral and leads to primary disability in people over 50 years old. According to various sources, central vision impairment due to AMD was observed in 10% of people aged 65-75 years, and in people over 75 years old in 30% [2, 3]. Genetic factors and the environment play an important role in the development of AMD. Risk factors include hypertension, atherosclerosis, smoking [1, 3, 4]. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of optical coherence tomography for the diagnosis of AMD.

Peculiarities of the development of reproductive function in adolescent girls with hypothyroidism

At present, hypothyroidism occupies a leading place in the structure of the general endocrine pathology of adolescent girls. Disorders associated with hypothyroidism can lead to changes in the menstrual cycle, infertility, miscarriage [8, 12].