"Türkmenistanyň lukmançylygy" žurnaly

Founder: Ministry of health and medical industry of Turkmenistan
Adress: Ashgabat c., Garashsyzlyk shayoly, 100, Turkmenbashy centre of free creative work
Telephones: 38-61-55
Email: t-lukmanchylygy-zurnaly@online.tm


Modern aspects of myopia diagnosis in children

Myopia is distinguished by a variety of clinical forms, complexity of pathogenesis, which includes biomechanical, vascular and metabolic factors, difficulty of early diagnosis and treatment, severity of prognosis and the high medical and social significance of disease [1-3]. The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the first time makes it possible for a high-precision objective qualitative and quantitative assessment of reticular and vascular tunic of eye, which opens up wide opportunities in graft morphometric study of various segments of the fundus of eye in myopia [4]. The aim of the work is to identify morphometric diagnostic signs of myopia progression by means of optical coherence tomography of the fundus of eye in children.

The effect of ecological crisis of the Aral sea on the health state of the population

Ecological crisis of the Aral Sea affects 60 million population of Central Asia and an area of about 25 million hectares [2, 10]. The Aral Sea is a saltwater lake or inland sea in Central Asia. Overconsumption of water for irrigating agricultural land has turned the fourth largest sea-lake in the world, previously rich in life, into a barren desert [6]. Shrinking Aral Sea is one of the most powerful sources of natural aerosols entering the atmosphere [2].

Modern methods of diagnostics of urolithiasis

Urolithiasis is one of the most common diseases. The incidence of nephrolithiasis in Central Asia is up to 1-5%, in Europe – 5-9%, in North America – 13%, in Saudi Arabia – 20%, and its growth is noted in all regions [2, 4, 6-10]. Patients with urolithiasis make up 30-40% of all patients in urological hospitals. In most cases, people of working age (30-50 years old) suffer from it. The main role in diagnosis of urolithiasis is a method of X-ray examination – plain and excretory urography. Before the introduction of computed tomography into practical health care, excretory urography was considered the "gold standard" in the diagnosis of urolithiasis. Some stones are not visible on X-rays (urate calculus). Other stones (X-ray positive) trap X-rays and are therefore visualized (oxalates, phosphates). X-ray-negative stones can be diagnosed using contrast urography – due to the lack of contrast agent at the site of urate calculus, a symptom of "filling defect" is determined (Fig. 1).

Stenting of vertebral artery in atherosclerotic stenosis

Chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency (CCVI) is still one of the main causes of death and disability among population [1]. Most often, CCVI is caused by the pathology of carotid arteries, the second cause are occlusive-stenotic lesions of vertebral arteries (VA), leading to the development of vertebrobasilar insufficiency syndrome (VBI) [2]. We present the first clinical case carried out in our center.

Pulmonary arteriovenous aneurism

Pulmonary arteriovenous aneurysm is a congenital disease. During a period of embryonic development in a child, as a result of disturbances in the normal formation of pulmonary artery and vein (as a separate system), anastomosis – an innate pathological connection between arteries and veins is formed [2]. We present a case from our practical work.

Influence of turkmen juniper decoction on hepatic tissue of laboratory rats in experimental atherosclerosis

These days, atherosclerosis and diseases associated with it are the main cause of disability and high mortality in most countries of the world [2]. One of the etiological factors of atherosclerosis is dyslipidemia, which leads to proatherogenic stimulation and initiation of a dysfunctional state of endothelium. The aim of the work is to study the influence of decoction of fruits of Turkmen juniper on hepatic tissue of laboratory rats with experimental atherosclerosis.

Effectiveness of use of licorice root infusion in frequently ill children

Children who often suffer from acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an urgent medical and social problem in pediatrics. Phytotherapy plays an important role in the treatment and prophylaxis of ARI in frequently ill children (FIC), in particular, the use of licorice root [6]. The active ingredient of licorice root is glycyrrhizinic acid (GA), which has antiviral, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects [1]. GA is active against DNA and RNA containing viruses, including various strains of viruses Herpes simplex, Varicella zoster, human papillomaviruses, cytomegaloviruses. GA inhibits viruses at concentrations that are non-toxic for normally functioning cells [10, 11, 14]. In this regard, we decided to study the effectiveness of using infusion of licorice root in FIC.

Clinical results of plasmotherapy in combination with a bandage lens in the treatment of keratitis

Inflammatory eye diseases, in particular keratitis, which are the cause of temporary disability in 80% and the cause of blindness in 10-30% of cases, remain a serious social problem in practical ophthalmology [2]. In order to achieve epithelialization of corneal wound, the use of autologous serum is widespread [1]. The next stage in the development of this technique was the use of platelet-rich plasma [2, 4, 5].

Antiparasitic treatment of residual cavity of liver echinococcosis in surgery

Liver echinococcosis is a serious problem for countries with endemic foci of this parasitic disease. The recurrence rate after surgery reaches 22,3-31,3%. One of the debatable issues in surgical treatment of liver echinococcosis is a choice of techniques in relation to fibrous capsule of a cyst [3, 8, 10-12]. The aim of the work is to study the results of ultrasonic antiparasitic treatment of residual cavity of liver after echinococcectomy with simultaneous hepatoprotection of liver parenchyma.

Clinical assessment of oral cavity condition in children with dentofacial anomalies

Dentofacial anomalies (DFA) are a complex problem of modern pediatric dentistry, which the WHO includes among the priority areas [8]. Scientific research indicates a direct relationship between orthodontics and periodontics [3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 12]. The aim of the work is to identify early stage of chronic catarrhal gingivitis (CCG) in children with DFA using a clinical assessment of the hygienic status of oral cavity and periodontal indices.

Experimental tests of tincture from turkmen mandragora leaves

In the third volume of the encyclopedic publication "Medicinal Plants of Turkmenistan", the President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov gives a biological characterization of Turkmen mandrake (Mandragora turcomanica). Turkmen mandrake belongs to the nightshade family, height 20-40 cm, leaves in the form of rosettes with a diameter of 160 cm, the lower ones of which are 80 cm long, and the upper ones are shorter. Valuable qualities of Turkmen mandrake are frost resistance and a long growing season, which allows to consider mandrake a promising vegetable plant for selection work. The medicinal properties of this plant have been known since ancient times. Mandragora was used as a sleeping pill, narcotic drug. Other properties of this plant are described: emetic, diuretic, hemostatic. Information is presented about the use of mandrake in the treatment of acute pain and cramps in the eyes, solid tumors and purulent ulcers, and poisonous insect bites. Leaves are applied to bruises, roots – to furuncles, to pain points in joint pain [1, 5]. The aim of the work is to determine the antimicrobial activity of tincture prepared from the leaves of Turkmen mandrake, to identify the possibility of using the preparation in practice.

The effectiveness of surgical treatment of various types of strabismus

Prevention and elimination of strabismus with simultaneous restoration of the lost visual functions of eye is an important task for pediatric ophthalmologists. Strabismus ranks second in frequency among pediatric ocular pathologies [5] and occurs in 0,5-3,5% of children [1, 4]. In pediatric eye hospitals, patients with strabismus account for 15 to 35% [2].

Analysis of physical and physiological indicators of wrestlers

Training of sportsmen on the basis of monitoring the level of their fitness leads to higher results of indicators of their physical development. In literary sources, physical and physiological indicators of wrestlers in various sports are estimated [7]. The indices of a holistic approach are considered in the form of interconnection of all types of sports training, morphofunctional peculiarities; some indices of mental and physical activity of sportsmen remain poorly studied [4]. The aim of the work is to study a physical and physiological development of sportsmen of the national wrestling team and compare their indicators with the standards of sports medicine, as well as assess the quality of physical training.

Diagnostics and surgical treatment of duodenal injuries

Injuries to duodenum with blunt trauma is quite rare occurence. Duodenum, due to its anatomical location and relatively small size, is well protected from external damaging factors. Preoperative diagnosis of retroperitoneal injuries to duodenum is a difficult task, since the signs of lesion build up slowly. Despite numerous observations and a long history of the issue, there are no common tactical approaches in diagnosis and treatment of patients with this type of injury [1-3].

The ways of improving outcomes of cesarean section in pregnancy with high perinatal risk

One of the most urgent issues of modern obstetrics is the increase in the frequency of cesarean section (CS) operations, which improves the outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth in women with obstetric and perinatal pathology [1-5]. In recent years, the frequency of CS has been increasing due to indications from a fetus, that is, to improve perinatal performance [6-9]. The aim of the work is to study the causes of unfavorable perinatal parameters in abdominal delivery of women with full-term pregnancy.

Results of coronary artery bypass surgery for coronary heart disease in patients with diabetes mellitus

Due to the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and concomitant cardiovascular diseases, determining the optimal treatment technique is an urgent and complex problem in modern medicine [6]. The frequency of a combined course of diabetes mellitus with coronary heart disease (CHD) has sharply increased in recent years, which aggravates a course of CHD [8]. The combined course of DM and CHD is characterized by a long history of the disease, elderly age of patients, a large number of old myocardial infarctions. This situation, to a certain extent, limits the possibilities of surgical treatment for surgical revascularization. Currently, a performance of CABG (coronary artery bypass grafting) operations and a maximum use of autoarterial conduits are considered the optimal technique that reduce operational risks and improve the clinical results of operations [4, 5]. The aim of the work is to study the results of coronary artery bypass grafting and evaluate a clinical course in patients with CHD with DM of type 2 in multiple lesions of the coronary arteries.

Analyses of the chemical composition of dried cultivated plants of Turkmenistan

Cultivated plants are common in our daily diet, proteins, carbohydrates, fats of these plants serve as a source of energy. Vitamins, minerals, plant fibers, organic acids, pigments which are necessary for normal human life activity and functioning of body systems [5]. In folk medicine, beets, pumpkins, carrots and potatoes are often used to treat and prevent various diseases. The aim of the work is to determine the chemical composition of dried products from cultivated plants of Turkmenistan by volumetric, weight and spectrophotometric methods.

The importance of preventive examinations in the early diagnosis of breast cancer

The fight against malignant neoplasms is a topical issue in scientific and practical oncology, since an increase in the incidence is noted in the world, including Turkmenistan. In Europe, America, Russia, the incidence and mortality from breast cancer (BC) in women ranks first among all malignant neoplasms and the proportion of this disease is 20% [1, 6, 9, 11, 14]. At the end of 2019, BC ranked first among all malignant neoplasms in Turkmenistan and amounted to 17,5%. Among malignant neoplasms in women BC also ranks first and amounted to 25,5%.

The parameters of a blood test in patients with diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) refers to microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in the presence of concomitant diabetic macular edema (DME), regardless of the stage in the absence of treatment, leads to an irreversible decrease in visual acuity [4]. The development of DR is due to the complex interaction of metabolic and hemodynamic factors. Deviations associated with each of these parameters significantly increase viscosity of blood, as a result, the resistance to blood flow increases and the risk of vascular damage, including the retinal vessels increases even more. The activation of platelets, manifested in the enhancement of their aggregation and adhesive capabilities, is the most significant process in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy and retinopathy in particular [4].

Diagnostics features for β-thalassemia

Thalassemia – is a type of hemolytic anemia resulting from the destruction of red blood cells. β-thalassemia, according to the clinical classification, is divided into major, intermedia minor and minimal forms of the disease [1, 3]. β-thalassemia major (Cooley's disease) is characterized by sharply increased HbF content (50% or more of the total hemoglobin level). This disease has the following main clinical signs: progressive anemia, enlargement of liver and spleen, earthy-icteric color of the skin due to increased hemolysis, but without urobilinuria, characteristic changes in the skeleton. β-thalassemia intermedia is not malignant, the symptoms described above appear late and are mild. β-thalassemia minor proceeds in the form of mild hypochromic anemia with characteristic morphological changes in erythrocytes. Minimal β-thalassemia is asymptomatic, in some families with a special genetic examination, it is determined spontaneously.