Use­ful Plants

31 October 2020
978

Recent­ly, our news­pa­per has pub­lis­hed the ar­ticle about the cul­tivars and wild plants of the Turk­men flo­ra, used to rep­lace par­tial­ly the ag­ricul­tu­ral pro­ducts, which as­sist gar­de­ners in com­ba­ting gar­den pests and plant pat­ho­gens or pro­tecting crops along with ag­ricul­tu­ral che­micals. At the request of our rea­ders, the aut­hor will con­ti­nue this the­me and add in­secticides to the list of such plants.

…If na­tu­re had a re­me­dy for all pests, then the­re would be no rea­son to crea­te ar­ti­ficial subs­tances. Ho­wever, synt­he­si­sed com­pounds do not al­ways turn out to be a pa­nacea, i.e. a so­lu­tion for all gar­den prob­lems. The wis­dom of the far­mer li­es in the com­bi­na­tion and mo­de­ra­tion of che­micali­sa­tion in ag­ricul­tu­ral pro­ducti­on. Mo­reover, the far­mer has to be care­ful not to over­do it with pes­ticides or nit­ro­gen. So­me­ti­mes na­tu­ral subs­ti­tu­tes are no less ef­fective, but they have less adver­se environ­men­tal im­pact on so­il, farm ani­mals and in­sects-pol­li­na­tors. Ho­wever, it should be kept in mind that the plants owe the­se pro­per­ties to the na­tu­ral­ly occur­ring or­ga­nic com­pounds in them – al­ka­loids, glycosi­des, sa­po­nins, phy­toncides and es­sen­tial oils, which are not to “pests’ tas­te”. The­re­fo­re, when pre­pa­ring decoctions and in­fu­sions from the­se plants, the far­mer must ob­serve the sa­me precau­tions as when wor­king with toxic subs­tances. The specificity of na­tu­ral in­secticides is that they quickly lo­se their toxicity once app­lied and do not accumu­la­te in plants; they can be app­lied even in the pe­riod preceding the harvest. Mo­reover, decoctions of so­me species have a be­ne­ficial ef­fect on the so­il, dest­roying fun­gi, curing plants from ma­ny di­sea­ses and stop­ping pests from rep­ro­ducing. Such plants grow at the foot­hills of the Ko­pet­dag Moun­tains. They can be cal­led hel­pers of gar­de­ners.

Gul­na­bat JU­MA­MY­RA­DOVA,
a re­search wor­ker at the Na­tio­nal Ins­ti­tu­te of De­serts, Flo­ra and Fau­na, Mi­nist­ry of Ag­ricul­tu­re and Environ­ment Pro­tecti­on of Turk­me­nis­tan